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      Impact of COPD in patients with lung cancer and advanced disease treated with chemotherapy and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitors

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          While it is relatively well known that the prognosis of patients with lung cancer (LC) treated with surgery is worse in the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is unknown if this assessment can be extrapolated to patients with advanced disease treated with chemotherapy and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The aim of our study is to analyze the clinical characteristics and survival rates in patients with LC and COPD, and to compare these to the patients without airflow obstruction. From 471 evaluable patients, 324 (69%) were not treated with surgery due to disseminated disease (stages 3B and 4). Of them, 47.7% also had COPD. All patients were treated at the moment of diagnosis according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines with platinum-based chemotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Kaplan–Meier curves showed no significant differences in overall survival between COPD and non-COPD patients (log–rank P=0.65). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for the most relevant variables, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR adj) was statistically significant for performance status (HR adj =1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.59; P=0.002) and clinical stage (HR adj =0.67, 95% CI: 0.50–0.89; P=0.006), but not for COPD status (HR adj =1.20, 95% CI: 0.83–1.50; P=0.46). Our conclusion is that at present, when using standard care in advanced LC (stages 3B and 4), COPD does not have a significant deleterious impact on overall survival.

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          Most cited references 25

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          COPD prevalence is increased in lung cancer, independent of age, sex and smoking history.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbid disease in lung cancer, estimated to affect 40-70% of lung cancer patients, depending on diagnostic criteria. As smoking exposure is found in 85-90% of those diagnosed with either COPD or lung cancer, coexisting disease could merely reflect a shared smoking exposure. Potential confounding by age, sex and pack-yr smoking history, and/or by the possible effects of lung cancer on spirometry, may result in over-diagnosis of COPD prevalence. In the present study, the prevalence of COPD (pre-bronchodilator Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2+ criteria) in patients diagnosed with lung cancer was 50% compared with 8% in a randomly recruited community control group, matched for age, sex and pack-yr smoking exposure (n = 602, odds ratio 11.6; p<0.0001). In a subgroup analysis of those with lung cancer and lung function measured prior to the diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 127), we found a nonsignificant increase in COPD prevalence following diagnosis (56-61%; p = 0.45). After controlling for important variables, the prevalence of COPD in newly diagnosed lung cancer cases was six-fold greater than in matched smokers; this is much greater than previously reported. We conclude that COPD is both a common and important independent risk factor for lung cancer.
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            Smokers are more prone to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than non-smokers, but this finding comes from studies spanning 10 years or less. The aim of this study was to determine the 25 year absolute risk of developing COPD in men and women from the general population. As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 8045 men and women aged 30-60 years with normal lung function at baseline were followed for 25 years. Lung function measurements were collected and mortality from COPD during the 25 year observation period was analysed. The percentage of men with normal lung function ranged from 96% of never smokers to 59% of continuous smokers; for women the proportions were 91% and 69%, respectively. The 25 year incidence of moderate and severe COPD was 20.7% and 3.6%, respectively, with no apparent difference between men and women. Smoking cessation, especially early in the follow up period, decreased the risk of developing COPD substantially compared with continuous smoking. During the follow up period there were 2912 deaths, 109 of which were from COPD. 92% of the COPD deaths occurred in subjects who were current smokers at the beginning of the follow up period. The absolute risk of developing COPD among continuous smokers is at least 25%, which is larger than was previously estimated.
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              The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Staging Project: prognostic factors and pathologic TNM stage in surgically managed non-small cell lung cancer.

              To assess the impact of cell type, age, and gender in addition to pathologic tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage in surgically managed stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases from the international staging database of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. From the 67,725 cases of NSCLC submitted to the staging database, 9137 surgically managed cases were selected for which all the following variables were available: pathologic stage, age, gender, and specific histologic cell type. Performance status and smoking history were examined in subsets. Methods used were Cox proportional hazards regression and recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA) analyses. Pathologic TNM stage, age, and gender were all independently prognostic for survival. The bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) subtype had superior survival over other cell types despite the potential for heterogeneity in this group. Adjusted comparisons revealed a small survival advantage for squamous cell carcinomas over non-BAC adenocarcinoma histology and also over large cell, though the effect appeared to be limited to the male patients. RPA revealed the importance of TNM stage primarily, and age was prognostic within stage groups. Cell type was not found to add prognostic value in the RPA analysis. Prognostic groups were formed based on the RPA output, and the prognostic value of these groupings was validated using the North American Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registries. Performance status and smoking history were prognostic in the subsets where data were available. Effects of other variable were not influenced by the inclusion of smoking status in regression models. Age and gender are confirmed as important prognostic factors in surgically resected NSCLC. Cell type is less important, although the small population of cases classified as BAC have a survival advantage over other histologies, and there may be a small survival advantage for squamous cell carcinomas over non-BAC adenocarcinomas. Imbalances between stage, gender, and cell type at presentation may lead to a misleading result with respect to cell type in unadjusted analyses. Pathologic TNM category is the most important prognostic factor in this analysis.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                30 September 2014
                : 9
                : 1053-1058
                Pulmonology Department, Guadalajara University Hospital, Guadalajara, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: José Luis Izquierdo, Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, C/Donante de sangre sn, 19002 Guadalajara, Spain, Tel +34 949 201 9200 ext 69471, Fax +34 949 209 218, Email jlizquierdo@
                © 2014 Izquierdo et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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