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      Long-Term Outcomes of Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Biopsy-Proven Diabetic Nephropathy

      , MD, PHD 1 , 2 , , MD, PHD 1 , 2 , , MD 1 , 2 , , MD 1 , 2 , , MD, PHD 1 , 2 , , MD, PHD 1 , 2 , , MD, PHD 1 , 2 , , MD, PHD 1 , 2 , , MD, PHD 2 , , MD, PHD 3 , , MD, PHD 4 , , MD, PHD 2 , , MD, PHD 1 , 5 , The Kanazawa Study Group for Renal Diseases and Hypertension

      Diabetes Care

      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          We evaluated the structural-functional relationships and the prognostic factors for renal events, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy ( n = 260) were enrolled. Patients were stratified by albuminuria (proteinuria) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the time of renal biopsy. The outcomes were the first occurrence of renal events (requirement of dialysis or a 50% decline in eGFR from baseline), cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary interventions, or nonfatal stroke), and all-cause mortality.

          RESULTS

          The factors associated with albuminuria (proteinuria) regardless of eGFR were hematuria, diabetic retinopathy, low hemoglobin, and glomerular lesions. The factors associated with low eGFR regardless of albuminuria (proteinuria) were age and diffuse, nodular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions. The glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions in patients with normoalbuminuria (normal proteinuria) and low eGFR were more advanced compared to those in patients with normoalbuminuria (normal proteinuria) and maintained eGFR. In addition, compared to patients with micro-/macroalbuminuria (mild/severe proteinuria) and low eGFR, their tubulointerstitial and vascular lesions were similar or more advanced in contrast to glomerular lesions. The mean follow-up period was 8.1 years. There were 118 renal events, 62 cardiovascular events, and 45 deaths. The pathological determinants were glomerular lesions, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA), and arteriosclerosis for renal events, arteriosclerosis for cardiovascular events, and IFTA for all-cause mortality. The major clinical determinant for renal events and all-cause mortality was macroalbuminuria (severe proteinuria).

          CONCLUSIONS

          Our study suggests that the characteristic pathological lesions as well as macroalbuminuria (severe proteinuria) were closely related to the long-term outcomes of biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy.

          Although pathologic classifications exist for several renal diseases, including IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis, a uniform classification for diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Our aim, commissioned by the Research Committee of the Renal Pathology Society, was to develop a consensus classification combining type1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathies. Such a classification should discriminate lesions by various degrees of severity that would be easy to use internationally in clinical practice. We divide diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions with a separate evaluation for degrees of interstitial and vascular involvement. Biopsies diagnosed as diabetic nephropathy are classified as follows: Class I, glomerular basement membrane thickening: isolated glomerular basement membrane thickening and only mild, nonspecific changes by light microscopy that do not meet the criteria of classes II through IV. Class II, mesangial expansion, mild (IIa) or severe (IIb): glomeruli classified as mild or severe mesangial expansion but without nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions) or global glomerulosclerosis in more than 50% of glomeruli. Class III, nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions): at least one glomerulus with nodular increase in mesangial matrix (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) without changes described in class IV. Class IV, advanced diabetic glomerulosclerosis: more than 50% global glomerulosclerosis with other clinical or pathologic evidence that sclerosis is attributable to diabetic nephropathy. A good interobserver reproducibility for the four classes of DN was shown (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84) in a test of this classification.
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            Structural-functional relationships in diabetic nephropathy.

            Renal biopsies in 45 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) were examined by semiquantitative light microscopy and quantitative electron microscopic stereologic morphometry. In these 14 males and 31 females, aged 13-52 yr, who had had IDDM for 2.5-29 yr there was no strong relationship between either glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness or mesangial expansion and duration of IDDM. There was only a weak relationship between the thickness of the GBM and expansion of the mesangium. Thus, GBM thickening and mesangial expansion in IDDM occur at rates that often differ from one another and that vary greatly among patients. The clinical manifestations of diabetic nephropathy, albuminuria, hypertension, and decreased glomerular filtration rate related poorly or not at all to GBM thickening. In contrast, all light and electron microscopic measures of mesangial expansion were strongly related to the clinical manifestations of diabetic nephropathy, although in the absence of these clinical findings, it was not possible to predict the severity of any of the diabetic glomerular lesions. Mesangial expansion had strong inverse correlations with capillary filtering surface area density. It is hypothesized that mesangial expansion could lead to glomerular functional deterioration in IDDM by restricting the glomerular capillary vasculature and its filtering surface. However, capillary closure, glomerular sclerosis, and interstitial fibrosis could also contribute to the clinical manifestations of this disorder.
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              Patterns of renal injury in NIDDM patients with microalbuminuria.

              Microalbuminuria predicts overt nephropathy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients; however, the structural basis for this functional abnormality is unknown. In this study we evaluated renal structure and function in a cohort of 34 unselected microalbuminuric NIDDM patients (26 male/8 female, age: 58 +/- 7 years, known diabetes duration: 11 +/- 6 years, HbA1c: 8.5 +/- 1.6%). Systemic hypertension was present in all but 3. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 101 +/- 27 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 and albumin excretion rate (AER) 44 (20-199) micrograms/ min. Light microscopic slides were categorized as: C I) normal or near normal renal structure; C II) changes "typical" of diabetic nephropathology in insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) (glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and arteriolar changes occurring in parallel); C III) "atypical" patterns of injury, with absent or only mild diabetic glomerular changes associated with disproportionately severe renal structural changes including: important tubulo-interstitial with or without arteriolar hyalinosis with or without global glomerular sclerosis. Ten patients (29.4%) were classified as C I, 10 as C II (29.4%) and 14 as C III (41.2%); none of these patients had any definable non-diabetic renal disease. GFR, AER and blood pressure were similar in the three groups, while HbA1c was higher in C II and C III than in C I patients. Diabetic retinopathy was present in all C II patients (background in 50% and proliferative in 50%). None of the patients in C I and C III had proliferative retinopathy, while background retinopathy was observed in 50% of C I and 57% of C III patients. In summary, microalbuminuric NIDDM patients are structurally heterogeneous with less than one third having "typical" diabetic nephropathology. The presence of both "typical" and "atypical" patterns of renal pathology was associated with worse metabolic control, suggesting that hyperglycaemia may cause different patterns of renal injury in older NIDDM compared to younger IDDM patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                diacare
                dcare
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                November 2013
                15 October 2013
                : 36
                : 11
                : 3655-3662
                Affiliations
                1Division of Nephrology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan
                2Department of Disease Control and Homeostasis, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan
                3Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Kanazawa Medical Center, Kanazawa, Japan
                4Division of Nephrology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Japan
                5Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Takashi Wada, twada@ 123456m-kanazawa.jp .
                Article
                0298
                10.2337/dc13-0298
                3816871
                24089538
                © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Product
                Categories
                Original Research
                Pathophysiology/Complications

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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