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      Decreased frequency of adenoidectomy by a 12-week nasal budesonide treatment

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          There is little evidence on the role of topical budesonide in reducing the frequency of adenoidectomy, although it was reported that topical budesonide can effectively ameliorate the symptoms of adenoid hypertrophy (AH). This study was aimed to investigate the possibility and safety of alternatives to adenoidectomy with a 12-week treatment with nasal budesonide.

          Materials and methods

          One hundred patients with AH were randomized to receive either a double-blind budesonide (1 mg once daily) or placebo treatment for 2 weeks by transnasal nebulization. A further 12-week open study, budesonide spray (64 μg per nostril at bedtime) was administered to the treatment group. During the final 12 weeks of follow-up, the frequency of adenotonsillectomy, side effects, the degree of nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, and snoring were assessed.


          Out of the 100 total enrolled patients, 92 children with AH completed the study. After the 2-week treatment with transnasal budesonide nebulization, the symptoms of AH significantly decreased compared to the control group. Responders (n=26) who had initially improved showed significantly decreased symptoms of AH, and the frequency of adenotonsillectomy during the follow-up (14 and 26 weeks) was compared with that of the control group and non-responders (n=21) who did not respond to the initial 2-week budesonide therapy. The 12-week nasal budesonide treatment did not suppress the growth rate of children’s height or cause other side effects.


          AH children who had improved after an initial 2-week budesonide therapy can achieve clinical improvements and decreased frequency of adenoidectomy following the therapy with a 12-week treatment with nasal budesonide.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Clinical practice guideline: tonsillectomy in children.

          Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in the United States, with more than 530,000 procedures performed annually in children younger than 15 years. Tonsillectomy is defined as a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil including its capsule by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Depending on the context in which it is used, it may indicate tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy, especially in relation to sleep-disordered breathing. This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care and management of children 1 to 18 years old under consideration for tonsillectomy. In addition, this guideline is intended for all clinicians in any setting who interact with children 1 to 18 years of age who may be candidates for tonsillectomy. The primary purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with evidence-based guidance in identifying children who are the best candidates for tonsillectomy. Secondary objectives are to optimize the perioperative management of children undergoing tonsillectomy, emphasize the need for evaluation and intervention in special populations, improve counseling and education of families of children who are considering tonsillectomy for their child, highlight the management options for patients with modifying factors, and reduce inappropriate or unnecessary variations in care. The panel made a strong recommendation that clinicians should administer a single, intraoperative dose of intravenous dexamethasone to children undergoing tonsillectomy. The panel made a strong recommendation against clinicians routinely administering or prescribing perioperative antibiotics to children undergoing tonsillectomy. The panel made recommendations for (1) watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection if there have been fewer than 7 episodes in the past year or fewer than 5 episodes per year in the past 2 years or fewer than 3 episodes per year in the past 3 years; (2) assessing the child with recurrent throat infection who does not meet criteria in statement 2 for modifying factors that may nonetheless favor tonsillectomy, which may include but are not limited to multiple antibiotic allergy/intolerance, periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis, or history of peritonsillar abscess; (3) asking caregivers of children with sleep-disordered breathing and tonsil hypertrophy about comorbid conditions that might improve after tonsillectomy, including growth retardation, poor school performance, enuresis, and behavioral problems; (4) counseling caregivers about tonsillectomy as a means to improve health in children with abnormal polysomnography who also have tonsil hypertrophy and sleep-disordered breathing; (5) counseling caregivers that sleep-disordered breathing may persist or recur after tonsillectomy and may require further management; (6) advocating for pain management after tonsillectomy and educating caregivers about the importance of managing and reassessing pain; and (7) clinicians who perform tonsillectomy should determine their rate of primary and secondary posttonsillectomy hemorrhage at least annually. The panel offered options to recommend tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection with a frequency of at least 7 episodes in the past year or at least 5 episodes per year for 2 years or at least 3 episodes per year for 3 years with documentation in the medical record for each episode of sore throat and 1 or more of the following: temperature >38.3°C, cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudate, or positive test for group A β-hemolytic streptococcus.
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            Modern assessment of tonsils and adenoids.

            Modern assessment of the tonsils and adenoids is based on an appreciation of new concepts pertaining to the pathogenesis of tonsil and adenoid disease. Recognition of the emergence of beta-lactamase-producing and encapsulated anaerobic bacteria in the tonsils and adenoids should lead to a reconsideration of present therapeutic recommendations for antibiotic therapy in infectious tonsil and adenoid disease. The performance of a precise history, use of a standardized physical examination, and judicious use of laboratory evaluation are all necessary for appropriate patient management and improved communication between the pediatrician and otolaryngologist. Thus, appropriate recommendation for tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy will enhance their benefits, and the result will be happier and healthier children.
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              Obstructive sleep disordered breathing in 2- to 18-year-old children: diagnosis and management.

              This document summarises the conclusions of a European Respiratory Society Task Force on the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in childhood and refers to children aged 2-18 years. Prospective cohort studies describing the natural history of SDB or randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials regarding its management are scarce. Selected evidence (362 articles) can be consolidated into seven management steps. SDB is suspected when symptoms or abnormalities related to upper airway obstruction are present (step 1). Central nervous or cardiovascular system morbidity, growth failure or enuresis and predictors of SDB persistence in the long-term are recognised (steps 2 and 3), and SDB severity is determined objectively preferably using polysomnography (step 4). Children with an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >5 episodes·h(-1), those with an AHI of 1-5 episodes·h(-1) and the presence of morbidity or factors predicting SDB persistence, and children with complex conditions (e.g. Down syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome) all appear to benefit from treatment (step 5). Treatment interventions are usually implemented in a stepwise fashion addressing all abnormalities that predispose to SDB (step 6) with re-evaluation after each intervention to detect residual disease and to determine the need for additional treatment (step 7).

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                03 October 2017
                : 13
                : 1309-1316
                [1 ]Department of Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery of 5th Hospital, Affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai
                [2 ]Department of Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery of 1st Hospital, Affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou
                [3 ]Department of Respiration of 5th Hospital, Affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China
                [4 ]Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH
                [5 ]Sanford Consortium, Regenerative Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yunping Fan, Department of Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery of 5th Hospital, Affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University, No 52 Meihua east road, Xiangzhou, Zhuhai 519020, China, Email zhfyp8835@ 123456163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2017 Hong et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                adenoid hypertrophy, adenoidectomy, budesonide, frequency, treatment


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