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      Effect of Blood Collection Tube Type and Time to Processing on the Enumeration and High-Content Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells Using the High-Definition Single-Cell Assay

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          Considerations in the development of circulating tumor cell technology for clinical use

          This manuscript summarizes current thinking on the value and promise of evolving circulating tumor cell (CTC) technologies for cancer patient diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy, as well as accelerating oncologic drug development. Moving forward requires the application of the classic steps in biomarker development–analytical and clinical validation and clinical qualification for specific contexts of use. To that end, this review describes methods for interactive comparisons of proprietary new technologies, clinical trial designs, a clinical validation qualification strategy, and an approach for effectively carrying out this work through a public-private partnership that includes test developers, drug developers, clinical trialists, the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI).
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            Fluid biopsy in patients with metastatic prostate, pancreatic and breast cancers.

            Hematologic spread of carcinoma results in incurable metastasis; yet, the basic characteristics and travel mechanisms of cancer cells in the bloodstream are unknown. We have established a fluid phase biopsy approach that identifies circulating tumor cells (CTCs) without using surface protein-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. This 'HD-CTC' assay finds >5 HD-CTCs mL(-1) of blood in 80% of patients with metastatic prostate cancer (n = 20), in 70% of patients with metastatic breast cancer (n = 30), in 50% of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (n = 18), and in 0% of normal controls (n = 15). Additionally, it finds HD-CTC clusters ranging from 2 HD-CTCs to greater than 30 HD-CTCs in the majority of these cancer patients. This initial validation of an enrichment-free assay demonstrates our ability to identify significant numbers of HD-CTCs in a majority of patients with prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers.
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              Is Open Access

              How apoptotic cells aid in the removal of their own cold dead bodies

              Apoptotic cell clearance facilitates the removal of aged, damaged, infected or dangerous cells although minimizing perturbation of surrounding tissues, and is a vital process in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Importantly, failure to correctly execute programmed cell death and subsequent corpse clearance is broadly associated with chronic inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Apoptotic cells develop dramatic morphological changes including contraction, membrane blebbing and apoptotic body formation, which were among the first and most readily identifiable features of cellular suicide. However, understanding the purpose of apoptotic cell morphological changes has proven to be elusive, and recent studies have made somewhat surprising, and occasionally opposing, conclusions about the contribution of blebbing to phagocytic clearance and prevention of inflammatory/autoimmune disease. We review the evidence indicating how apoptotic blebs actively promote corpse recognition, uptake, and generation of auto-reactive antibodies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
                Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
                Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                0003-9985
                1543-2165
                February 2018
                February 2018
                : 142
                : 2
                : 198-207
                Article
                10.5858/arpa.2016-0483-OA
                © 2018

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