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      Improvement of physical capacity in patients undergoing transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects

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          Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly diagnosed in adults. It often remains asymptomatic until the fourth or fifth decade of life. Significant left-to-right interatrial shunting is associated with the risk of heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and atrial fibrillation. Percutaneous ASD closure is a recognized method of treatment.


          To evaluate the clinical outcomes and physical capacity in patients undergoing transcatheter closure of ostium secundum ASD.

          Material and methods

          One hundred and twenty adult patients (75 females and 45 males) with a mean age of 43.1 ±13.3 (17–78) years who underwent transcatheter device closure of ostium secundum ASD were analyzed. Clinical evaluation and transthoracic color Doppler echocardiographic study were repeated in all patients before as well as 1 and 24 months after the procedure. To assess the physical capacity symptom-limited treadmill exercise tests with respiratory gas-exchange analysis were performed in all patients before the procedure and after 24 months of follow-up.


          The devices were successfully implanted in all patients. During 24 months of follow-up all patients showed significant clinical and spiroergometric improvement of exercise capacity, and a significant decrease of right heart chamber overload features on echocardiography.


          Transcatheter closure of ASD in patients with significant shunt resulted in significant clinical and hemodynamic improvement regardless of the baseline functional class.

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          Most cited references 15

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          The incidence of congenital heart disease.

          This study was designed to determine the reasons for the variability of the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD), estimate its true value and provide data about the incidence of specific major forms of CHD. The incidence of CHD in different studies varies from about 4/1,000 to 50/1,000 live births. The relative frequency of different major forms of CHD also differs greatly from study to study. In addition, another 20/1,000 live births have bicuspid aortic valves, isolated anomalous lobar pulmonary veins or a silent patent ductus arteriosus. The incidences reported in 62 studies published after 1955 were examined. Attention was paid to the ways in which the studies were conducted, with special reference to the increased use of echocardiography in the neonatal nursery. The total incidence of CHD was related to the relative frequency of ventricular septal defects (VSDs), the most common type of CHD. The incidences of individual major forms of CHD were determined from 44 studies. The incidence of CHD depends primarily on the number of small VSDs included in the series, and this number in turn depends upon how early the diagnosis is made. If major forms of CHD are stratified into trivial, moderate and severe categories, the variation in incidence depends mainly on the number of trivial lesions included. The incidence of moderate and severe forms of CHD is about 6/1,000 live births (19/1,000 live births if the potentially serious bicuspid aortic valve is included), and of all forms increases to 75/1,000 live births if tiny muscular VSDs present at birth and other trivial lesions are included. Given the causes of variation, there is no evidence for differences in incidence in different countries or times.
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            Secundum atrial septal defect. Nonoperative closure during cardiac catheterization.

            A 17-year-old girl had clinical and cardiac catheterization findings compatible with a secundum atrial septal defect. During cardiac catheterization, the atrial septal defect was sized and closed using a transvenous umbrella technique.
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              Long-term outcome after surgical repair of isolated atrial septal defect. Follow-up at 27 to 32 years.

              Atrial septal defects have been surgically correctable for more than 30 years. The long-term survival rates among patients treated in the early era of cardiac surgery are poorly documented, but such data are of critical importance to the future medical care, employability, and insurability of these patients. To determine the natural history of surgically corrected atrial septal defects, we studied all 123 patients who underwent repair of an isolated defect (ostium secundum or sinus venosus) at the Mayo Clinic between 1956 and 1960, 27 to 32 years after the procedure. The follow-up status of all patients was determined by written questionnaires and telephone interviews. Hospital records and death certificates were obtained if interim hospitalization or death had occurred. The overall 30-year actuarial survival rate among survivors of the perioperative period was 74 percent, as compared with 85 percent among controls matched for age and sex. The perioperative mortality was 3.3 percent (four deaths). Actuarial 27-year survival rates among patients in the younger two quartiles according to age at operation (less than or equal to 11 years and 12 to 24 years) were no different from rates among controls--97 percent and 93 percent, respectively. In the two older quartiles (25 to 41 years and greater than 41 years), 27-year survival rates were significantly less (P less than 0.001)--84 percent and 40 percent, respectively--than in controls (91 and 59 percent). Independent predictors of long-term survival according to multivariate analysis were age at operation (P less than 0.0001) and systolic pressure in the main pulmonary artery before operation (P less than 0.0027). When repair was performed in older patients, late cardiac failure, stroke, and atrial fibrillation were significantly more frequent. Among patients with surgically repaired atrial septal defects, those operated on before the age of 25 have an excellent prognosis, but older patients require careful, regular supervision.

                Author and article information

                Postepy Kardiol Interwencyjnej
                Postepy Kardiol Interwencyjnej
                Postępy w Kardiologii Interwencyjnej = Advances in Interventional Cardiology
                Termedia Publishing House
                22 March 2018
                : 14
                : 1
                : 90-94
                [1 ]Department of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, John Paul II Hospital, Krakow, Poland
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Paweł Prochownik MD, Department of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, John Paul II Hospital, 80 Prądnicka St, 31-202 Krakow, Poland. phone: +48 698 198 160. e-mail: pjprocho@
                Copyright: © 2018 Termedia Sp. z o. o.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

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