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      Tumor metastasis to lymph nodes requires YAP-dependent metabolic adaptation

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          Abstract

          In cancer patients, metastasis of tumors to sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) predicts disease progression and often guides treatment decisions. The mechanisms underlying tumor LN metastasis are poorly understood. By using comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses of primary and LN-metastatic tumors in mice, we found that LN metastasis requires that tumor cells undergo a metabolic shift toward fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Transcriptional coactivator yes-associated protein (YAP) is selectively activated in LN-metastatic tumors, leading to the up-regulation of genes in the FAO signaling pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of FAO or genetic ablation of YAP suppressed LN metastasis in mice. Several bioactive bile acids accumulated to high levels in the metastatic LNs, and these bile acids activated YAP in tumor cells, likely through the nuclear vitamin D receptor. Inhibition of FAO or YAP may merit exploration as a potential therapeutic strategy for mitigating tumor metastasis to LNs.

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          Most cited references26

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          YAP/TAZ upstream signals and downstream responses

          Cell behavior is strongly influenced by physical, mechanical contacts between cells and their extracellular matrix. We review how the transcriptional regulators YAP/TAZ integrate mechanical cues with the response to soluble signals and metabolic pathways to control multiple aspects of cell behavior, including proliferation, cell plasticity and stemness essential for tissue regeneration. Corruption of cell-environment interplay leads to aberrant YAP/TAZ activation that is instrumental for multiple diseases, including cancer.
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            Elevated circulating branched chain amino acids are an early event in pancreatic adenocarcinoma development

            Most patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are diagnosed with advanced disease and survive less than 12 months 1 . PDAC has been linked with obesity and glucose intolerance 2-4 , but whether changes in circulating metabolites are associated with early cancer progression is unknown. To better understand metabolic derangements associated with early disease, we profiled metabolites in prediagnostic plasma from pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls from four prospective cohort studies. We find that elevated plasma levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with a greater than 2–fold increased risk of future pancreatic cancer diagnosis. This elevated risk was independent of known predisposing factors, with the strongest association observed among subjects with samples collected 2 to 5 years prior to diagnosis when occult disease is likely present. We show that plasma BCAAs are also elevated in mice with early stage pancreatic cancers driven by mutant Kras expression, and that breakdown of tissue protein accounts for the increase in plasma BCAAs that accompanies early stage disease. Together, these findings suggest that increased whole–body protein breakdown is an early event in development of PDAC.
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              Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma.

              We evaluated the contribution of sentinel-node biopsy to outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed melanoma. Patients with a primary cutaneous melanoma were randomly assigned to wide excision and postoperative observation of regional lymph nodes with lymphadenectomy if nodal relapse occurred, or to wide excision and sentinel-node biopsy with immediate lymphadenectomy if nodal micrometastases were detected on biopsy. Among 1269 patients with an intermediate-thickness primary melanoma, the mean (+/-SE) estimated 5-year disease-free survival rate for the population was 78.3+/-1.6% in the biopsy group and 73.1+/-2.1% in the observation group (hazard ratio for recurrence[corrected], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.93; P=0.009). Five-year melanoma-specific survival rates were similar in the two groups (87.1+/-1.3% and 86.6+/-1.6%, respectively). In the biopsy group, the presence of metastases in the sentinel node was the most important prognostic factor; the 5-year survival rate was 72.3+/-4.6% among patients with tumor-positive sentinel nodes and 90.2+/-1.3% among those with tumor-negative sentinel nodes (hazard ratio for death, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.54 to 3.98; P<0.001). The incidence of sentinel-node micrometastases was 16.0% (122 of 764 patients), and the rate of nodal relapse in the observation group was 15.6% (78 of 500 patients). The corresponding mean number of tumor-involved nodes was 1.4 in the biopsy group and 3.3 in the observation group (P<0.001), indicating disease progression during observation. Among patients with nodal metastases, the 5-year survival rate was higher among those who underwent immediate lymphadenectomy than among those in whom lymphadenectomy was delayed (72.3+/-4.6% vs. 52.4+/-5.9%; hazard ratio for death, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.81; P=0.004). The staging of intermediate-thickness (1.2 to 3.5 mm) primary melanomas according to the results of sentinel-node biopsy provides important prognostic information and identifies patients with nodal metastases whose survival can be prolonged by immediate lymphadenectomy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00275496 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                February 07 2019
                February 08 2019
                February 08 2019
                February 07 2019
                : 363
                : 6427
                : 644-649
                Article
                10.1126/science.aav0173
                30733421
                973fae43-631d-472b-be89-d3116e95551c
                © 2019

                http://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

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