+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Comparative cytogenetics of the ground frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini Formas, 1989 and E. vertebralis Grandison, 1961 (Alsodidae) with comments on their inter- and intraspecific chromosome differentiation

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          South American frogs of the genus Eupsophus Fitzinger, 1843 comprise 10 species. Two of them, Eupsophus vertebralis Grandison, 1961 and E. emiliopugini Formas, 1989 belong to the Eupsophus vertebralis group, exhibiting 2n = 28. Fundamental number differences between these species have been described using conventional chromosome staining of few specimens from only two localities. Here, classical techniques (Giemsa, C-banding, CMA 3/DAPI banding, and Ag-NOR staining), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, with telomeric and 28S ribosomal probes), were applied on individuals of both species collected from 15 localities. We corroborate differences in fundamental numbers (FN) between E. vertebralis and E. emiliopugini through Giemsa staining and C-banding (FN = 54 and 56, respectively). No interstitial fluorescent signals, but clearly stained telomeric regions were detected by FISH using telomeric probe over spreads from both species. FISH with 28S rDNA probes and Ag-NOR staining confirmed the active nucleolus organizer regions signal on pair 5 for both species. Nevertheless, one E. emiliopugini individual from the Puyehue locality exhibited 28S ribosomal signals on pairs 4 and 5. Interestingly, only one chromosome of each pair showed Ag-NOR positive signals, showing a nucleolar dominance pattern. Chromosomal rearrangements, rRNA gene dosage control, mobile NORs elements, and/or species hybridization process could be involved in this interpopulation chromosomal variation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 45

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Controlled silver-staining of nucleolus organizer regions with a protective colloidal developer: a 1-step method

            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Improved telomere detection using a telomere repeat probe (TTAGGG)n generated by PCR.

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Reverse fluorescent chromosome banding with chromomycin and DAPI.

               D Schweizer (1976)
              Two DNA binding guanine-specific antibiotics, chromomycin A3 (CMA) and the closely related mithramycin (MM), were used as chromosome fluorescent dyes. Root-tip metaphase chromosomes of three plant species and human metaphase chromosomes were sequentially stained with CMA or MM and the DNA binding AT-specific fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). In some cases a non-fluorescent counterstain was used as contrasting agent: methyl green in conjunction with CMA, and actinomycin D (AMD) in combination with DAPI.--In all three plant species, Vicia faba, Scilla siberica, and Ornithogalum caudatum, the nucleolus organiser regions and/or associated heterochromatin displayed very bright fluorescence with CMA and MM and, in general, heterochromatic segments (C-bands) which were bright with CMA and MM were pale with DAPI whereas segments which were dim with CMA and MM displayed very bright fluorescence with DAPI.--Human metaphase chromosomes showed a small longitudinal differentiation in CMA fluorescence, which was essentially the reverse of the banding pattern obtained with AMD/DAPI double-staining, but of lower contrast. The cma-banding pattern appears to be similar to the pattern found by R-banding procedures.

                Author and article information

                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                27 January 2020
                : 14
                : 1
                : 61-74
                [1 ] Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnólogicas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Edificio Emilio Pugin, Campus Isla Teja S/N, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile
                [2 ] Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Junior, s/n, 18618-970, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil Universidade Estadual Paulista Botucatu Brazil
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Camila A. Quercia ( camilaquerciar@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: N. Golub

                Camila A. Quercia, Elkin Y. Suárez-Villota, Fausto Foresti, José J. Nuñez

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Article
                Evolutionary biology
                Molecular Cytogenetics


                Comment on this article