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      Characterization of the Paenibacillus beijingensis DSM 24997 GtfD and its glucan polymer products representing a new glycoside hydrolase 70 subfamily of 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes

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          Abstract

          Previously we have reported that the Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum NCIMB 8003 uses the 4,6-α-glucanotransferase GtfD to convert maltodextrins and starch into a reuteran-like polymer consisting of (α1→4) glucan chains connected by alternating (α1→4)/(α1→6) linkages and (α1→4,6) branching points. This enzyme constituted the single evidence for this reaction and product specificity in the GH70 family, mostly containing glucansucrases encoded by lactic acid bacteria ( http://www.CAZy.org). In this work, 4 additional GtfD-like proteins were identified in taxonomically diverse plant-associated bacteria forming a new GH70 subfamily with intermediate characteristics between the evolutionary related GH13 and GH70 families. The GtfD enzyme encoded by Paenibacillus beijingensis DSM 24997 was characterized providing the first example of a reuteran-like polymer synthesizing 4,6-α-glucanotransferase in a Gram-positive bacterium. Whereas the A. chroococcum GtfD activity on amylose resulted in the synthesis of a high molecular polymer, in addition to maltose and other small oligosaccharides, two reuteran-like polymer distributions are produced by P. beijingensis GtfD: a high-molecular mass polymer and a low-molecular mass polymer with an average M w of 27 MDa and 19 kDa, respectively. Compared to the A. chroooccum GtfD product, both P. beijingensis GtfD polymers contain longer linear (α1→4) sequences in their structure reflecting a preference for transfer of even longer glucan chains by this enzyme. Overall, this study provides new insights into the evolutionary history of GH70 enzymes, and enlarges the diversity of natural enzymes that can be applied for modification of the starch present in food into less and/or more slowly digestible carbohydrate structures.

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          Most cited references28

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          Structure-function relationships of glucansucrase and fructansucrase enzymes from lactic acid bacteria.

          Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) employ sucrase-type enzymes to convert sucrose into homopolysaccharides consisting of either glucosyl units (glucans) or fructosyl units (fructans). The enzymes involved are labeled glucansucrases (GS) and fructansucrases (FS), respectively. The available molecular, biochemical, and structural information on sucrase genes and enzymes from various LAB and their fructan and alpha-glucan products is reviewed. The GS and FS enzymes are both glycoside hydrolase enzymes that act on the same substrate (sucrose) and catalyze (retaining) transglycosylation reactions that result in polysaccharide formation, but they possess completely different protein structures. GS enzymes (family GH70) are large multidomain proteins that occur exclusively in LAB. Their catalytic domain displays clear secondary-structure similarity with alpha-amylase enzymes (family GH13), with a predicted permuted (beta/alpha)(8) barrel structure for which detailed structural and mechanistic information is available. Emphasis now is on identification of residues and regions important for GS enzyme activity and product specificity (synthesis of alpha-glucans differing in glycosidic linkage type, degree and type of branching, glucan molecular mass, and solubility). FS enzymes (family GH68) occur in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and synthesize beta-fructan polymers with either beta-(2-->6) (inulin) or beta-(2-->1) (levan) glycosidic bonds. Recently, the first high-resolution three-dimensional structures have become available for FS (levansucrase) proteins, revealing a rare five-bladed beta-propeller structure with a deep, negatively charged central pocket. Although these structures have provided detailed mechanistic insights, the structural features in FS enzymes dictating the synthesis of either beta-(2-->6) or beta-(2-->1) linkages, degree and type of branching, and fructan molecular mass remain to be identified.
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            Crystal structure of glucansucrase from the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

            Glucansucrase (GSase) from Streptococcus mutans is an essential agent in dental caries pathogenesis. Here, we report the crystal structure of S. mutans glycosyltransferase (GTF-SI), which synthesizes soluble and insoluble glucans and is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 70 GSase in the free enzyme form and in complex with acarbose and maltose. Resolution of the GTF-SI structure confirmed that the domain order of GTF-SI is circularly permuted as compared to that of GH family 13 α-amylases. As a result, domains A, B and IV of GTF-SI are each composed of two separate polypeptide chains. Structural comparison of GTF-SI and amylosucrase, which is closely related to GH family 13 amylases, indicated that the two enzymes share a similar transglycosylation mechanism via a glycosyl-enzyme intermediate in subsite -1. On the other hand, novel structural features were revealed in subsites +1 and +2 of GTF-SI. Trp517 provided the platform for glycosyl acceptor binding, while Tyr430, Asn481 and Ser589, which are conserved in family 70 enzymes but not in family 13 enzymes, comprised subsite +1. Based on the structure of GTF-SI and amino acid comparison of GTF-SI, GTF-I and GTF-S, Asp593 in GTF-SI appeared to be the most critical point for acceptor sugar orientation, influencing the transglycosylation specificity of GSases, that is, whether they produced insoluble glucan with α(1-3) glycosidic linkages or soluble glucan with α(1-6) linkages. The structural information derived from the current study should be extremely useful in the design of novel inhibitors that prevent the biofilm formation by GTF-SI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Crystal structure of a 117 kDa glucansucrase fragment provides insight into evolution and product specificity of GH70 enzymes.

              Glucansucrases are large enzymes belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 70, which catalyze the cleavage of sucrose into fructose and glucose, with the concomitant transfer of the glucose residue to a growing α-glucan polymer. Among others, plaque-forming oral bacteria secrete these enzymes to produce α-glucans, which facilitate the adhesion of the bacteria to the tooth enamel. We determined the crystal structure of a fully active, 1,031-residue fragment encompassing the catalytic and C-terminal domains of GTF180 from Lactobacillus reuteri 180, both in the native state, and in complexes with sucrose and maltose. These structures show that the enzyme has an α-amylase-like (β/α)(8)-barrel catalytic domain that is circularly permuted compared to the catalytic domains of members of glycoside hydrolase families 13 and 77, which belong to the same GH-H superfamily. In contrast to previous suggestions, the enzyme has only one active site and one nucleophilic residue. Surprisingly, in GTF180 the peptide chain follows a "U"-path, such that four of the five domains are made up from discontiguous N- and C-terminal stretches of the peptide chain. Finally, the structures give insight into the factors that determine the different linkage types in the polymeric product.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                11 April 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 4
                : e0172622
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Microbial Physiology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute (GBB), University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Nestlé Research Center, Vers-Chez-Les-Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland
                University of Insubria, ITALY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: Nestec Ltd financially supported this work. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

                • Conceptualization: JG CV LD.

                • Formal analysis: JG LL SvL.

                • Funding acquisition: CV LD.

                • Investigation: JG LL SvL.

                • Visualization: JG LL SvL.

                • Writing – original draft: JG.

                • Writing – review & editing: JG LD.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6821-8143
                Article
                PONE-D-16-48700
                10.1371/journal.pone.0172622
                5388325
                28399167
                9836256e-0044-4c7f-a5e6-d85f1ecec760
                © 2017 Gangoiti et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 9 December 2016
                : 25 January 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 2, Pages: 26
                Funding
                This work was financially supported by Nestec Ltd and by the University of Groningen. Nestec Ltd provided support in the form of salaries for authors CV and LL. The University of Groningen provided support in the form of salaries for authors JG, SSvL, and LD. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the author contributions section. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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