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      THE EMERGING HALLMARKS OF CANCER METABOLISM

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      Cell metabolism

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          Abstract

          Tumorigenesis is dependent on the reprogramming of cellular metabolism as both direct and indirect consequence of oncogenic mutations. A common feature of cancer cell metabolism is the ability to acquire necessary nutrients from a frequently nutrient-poor environment and utilize these nutrients to both maintain viability and build new biomass. The alterations in intracellular and extracellular metabolites that can accompany cancer-associated metabolic reprogramming have profound effects on gene expression, cellular differentiation and the tumor microenvironment. In this Review, we have organized known cancer-associated metabolic changes into six hallmarks: (1) deregulated uptake of glucose and amino acids, (2) use of opportunistic modes of nutrient acquisition, (3) use of glycolysis/TCA cycle intermediates for biosynthesis and NADPH production, (4) increased demand for nitrogen, (5) alterations in metabolite-driven gene regulation, and (6) metabolic interactions with the microenvironment. While few tumors display all six hallmarks, most display several. The specific hallmarks exhibited by an individual tumor may ultimately contribute to better tumor classification and aid in directing treatment.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          101233170
          32527
          Cell Metab
          Cell Metab.
          Cell metabolism
          1550-4131
          1932-7420
          27 December 2015
          12 January 2016
          12 January 2017
          : 23
          : 1
          : 27-47
          Affiliations
          Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
          Author notes
          [* ]Address correspondence to Craig B. Thompson, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065. Phone: 212-639-6561; Fax: 212-717-3299; thompsonc@ 123456mskcc.org
          Article
          PMC4715268 PMC4715268 4715268 nihpa746655
          10.1016/j.cmet.2015.12.006
          4715268
          26771115
          983befc3-904d-47d4-bfc8-4b02545388f9
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