22 January 2021
Magnesium (Mg 2+) deficiency is probably the most underestimated electrolyte imbalance in Western countries. It is frequent in obese patients, subjects with type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, both in adulthood and in childhood. This narrative review aims to offer insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms linking Mg 2+ deficiency with obesity and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Literature highlights critical issues about the treatment of Mg 2+ deficiency, such as the lack of a clear definition of Mg 2+ nutritional status, the use of different Mg 2+ salts and dosage and the different duration of the Mg 2+ supplementation. Despite the lack of agreement, an appropriate dietary pattern, including the right intake of Mg 2+, improves metabolic syndrome by reducing blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. This occurs through the modulation of gene expression and proteomic profile as well as through a positive influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the metabolism of vitamins B1 and D.