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      Inside-Out Regulation of ICAM-1 Dynamics in TNF-α-Activated Endothelium

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          Abstract

          BackgroundDuring transendothelial migration, leukocytes use adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, to adhere to the endothelium. ICAM-1 is a dynamic molecule that is localized in the apical membrane of the endothelium and clusters upon binding to leukocytes. However, not much is known about the regulation of ICAM-1 clustering and whether membrane dynamics are linked to the ability of ICAM-1 to cluster and bind leukocyte integrins. Therefore, we studied the dynamics of endothelial ICAM-1 under non-clustered and clustered conditions.Principal FindingsDetailed scanning electron and fluorescent microscopy showed that the apical surface of endothelial cells constitutively forms small filopodia-like protrusions that are positive for ICAM-1 and freely move within the lateral plane of the membrane. Clustering of ICAM-1, using anti-ICAM-1 antibody-coated beads, efficiently and rapidly recruits ICAM-1. Using fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP), we found that clustering increased the immobile fraction of ICAM-1, compared to non-clustered ICAM-1. This shift required the intracellular portion of ICAM-1. Moreover, biochemical assays showed that ICAM-1 clustering recruited beta-actin and filamin. Cytochalasin B, which interferes with actin polymerization, delayed the clustering of ICAM-1. In addition, we could show that cytochalasin B decreased the immobile fraction of clustered ICAM-1-GFP, but had no effect on non-clustered ICAM-1. Also, the motor protein myosin-II is recruited to ICAM-1 adhesion sites and its inhibition increased the immobile fraction of both non-clustered and clustered ICAM-1. Finally, blocking Rac1 activation, the formation of lipid rafts, myosin-II activity or actin polymerization, but not Src, reduced the adhesive function of ICAM-1, tested under physiological flow conditions.ConclusionsTogether, these findings indicate that ICAM-1 clustering is regulated in an inside-out fashion through the actin cytoskeleton. Overall, these data indicate that signaling events within the endothelium are required for efficient ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte adhesion.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Rho GTPases: biochemistry and biology.

          Approximately one percent of the human genome encodes proteins that either regulate or are regulated by direct interaction with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. Through a series of complex biochemical networks, these highly conserved molecular switches control some of the most fundamental processes of cell biology common to all eukaryotes, including morphogenesis, polarity, movement, and cell division. In the first part of this review, we present the best characterized of these biochemical pathways; in the second part, we attempt to integrate these molecular details into a biological context.
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            Rho and Rac take center stage.

            Many features of cell behavior are regulated by Rho family GTPases, but the most profound effects of these proteins are on the actin cytoskeleton and it was these that first drew attention to this family of signaling proteins. Focusing on Rho and Rac, we will discuss how their effectors regulate the actin cytoskeleton. We will describe how the activity of Rho proteins is regulated downstream from growth factor receptors and cell adhesion molecules by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase activating proteins. Additionally, we will discuss how there is signaling crosstalk between family members and how various bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to manipulate Rho protein activity so as to enhance their own survival.
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              A millennial myosin census.

              The past decade has seen a remarkable explosion in our knowledge of the size and diversity of the myosin superfamily. Since these actin-based motors are candidates to provide the molecular basis for many cellular movements, it is essential that motility researchers be aware of the complete set of myosins in a given organism. The availability of cDNA and/or draft genomic sequences from humans, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Dictyostelium discoideum has allowed us to tentatively define and compare the sets of myosin genes in these organisms. This analysis has also led to the identification of several putative myosin genes that may be of general interest. In humans, for example, we find a total of 40 known or predicted myosin genes including two new myosins-I, three new class II (conventional) myosins, a second member of the class III/ninaC myosins, a gene similar to the class XV deafness myosin, and a novel myosin sharing at most 33% identity with other members of the superfamily. These myosins are in addition to the recently discovered class XVI myosin with N-terminal ankyrin repeats and two human genes with similarity to the class XVIII PDZ-myosin from mouse. We briefly describe these newly recognized myosins and extend our previous phylogenetic analysis of the myosin superfamily to include a comparison of the complete or nearly complete inventories of myosin genes from several experimentally important organisms.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Germany
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JDVB JvM PH. Performed the experiments: JDVB JVR FPJvA MH ST KAH EM. Analyzed the data: JDVB JVR JvM EM. Wrote the paper: JDVB PH.

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2010
                28 June 2010
                : 5
                : 6
                2893160
                20596527
                10-PONE-RA-17141R1
                10.1371/journal.pone.0011336
                (Editor)
                Van Buul et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Counts
                Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Article
                Cell Biology/Cell Adhesion
                Cell Biology/Cell Signaling
                Cell Biology/Cytoskeleton

                Uncategorized

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