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      An improved carbapenem inactivation method, CIMTrisII, for carbapenemase production by Gram-negative pathogens

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          Most cited references25

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          Carbapenemases: the versatile beta-lactamases.

          Carbapenemases are beta-lactamases with versatile hydrolytic capacities. They have the ability to hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Bacteria producing these beta-lactamases may cause serious infections in which the carbapenemase activity renders many beta-lactams ineffective. Carbapenemases are members of the molecular class A, B, and D beta-lactamases. Class A and D enzymes have a serine-based hydrolytic mechanism, while class B enzymes are metallo-beta-lactamases that contain zinc in the active site. The class A carbapenemase group includes members of the SME, IMI, NMC, GES, and KPC families. Of these, the KPC carbapenemases are the most prevalent, found mostly on plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The class D carbapenemases consist of OXA-type beta-lactamases frequently detected in Acinetobacter baumannii. The metallo-beta-lactamases belong to the IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM, and SIM families and have been detected primarily in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, there are increasing numbers of reports worldwide of this group of beta-lactamases in the Enterobacteriaceae. This review updates the characteristics, epidemiology, and detection of the carbapenemases found in pathogenic bacteria.
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            Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Phenotypic Detection of Carbapenemase Production among Enterobacteriaceae

            The ability of clinical microbiology laboratories to reliably detect carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant (CP-CRE) is an important element of the effort to prevent and contain the spread of these pathogens and an integral part of antimicrobial stewardship. All existing methods have limitations. A new, straightforward, inexpensive, and specific phenotypic method for the detection of carbapenemase production, the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM), was recently described. Here we describe a two-stage evaluation of a modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM), in which tryptic soy broth was substituted for water during the inactivation step and the length of this incubation was extended. A validation study was performed in a single clinical laboratory to determine the accuracy of the mCIM, followed by a nine-laboratory study to verify the reproducibility of these results and define the zone size cutoff that best discriminated between CP-CRE and members of the family that do not produce carbapenemases. Bacterial isolates previously characterized through whole-genome sequencing or targeted PCR as to the presence or absence of carbapenemase genes were tested for carbapenemase production using the mCIM; isolates with Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases, non-CP-CRE isolates, and carbapenem-susceptible isolates were included. The sensitivity of the mCIM observed in the validation study was 99% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 93% to 100%), and the specificity was 100% (95% CI, 82% to 100%). In the second stage of the study, the range of sensitivities observed across nine laboratories was 93% to 100%, with a mean of 97%; the range of specificities was 97% to 100%, with a mean of 99%. The mCIM was easy to perform and interpret for , with results in less than 24 h and excellent reproducibility across laboratories.
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              Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) for Characterization of Enterobacter cloacae

              Enterobacter cloacae is an important emerging pathogen, which sometime causes respiratory infection, surgical site infection, urinary infection, sepsis, and outbreaks at neonatal units. We have developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme utilizing seven housekeeping genes and evaluated the performance in 101 clinical isolates. The MLST scheme yielded 83 sequence types (ST) including 78 novel STs found in the clinical isolates. These findings supported the robustness of the MLST scheme developed in this study.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                0022-2615
                1473-5644
                February 01 2019
                February 01 2019
                : 68
                : 2
                : 124-131
                Affiliations
                [1 ] 1​Department of Infectious, Respiratory, and Digestive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
                [2 ] 2​Division of Clinical Laboratory and Blood Transfusion, University of the Ryukyus Hospital, Okinawa, Japan
                [3 ] 3​Department of Microbiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                [4 ] 4​Microbiology Research Division, Kohjin Bio Co., Ltd., Saitama, Japan
                [5 ] 5​Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease, University of the Ryukyus Hospital, Okinawa, Japan
                [6 ] 6​National Health Laboratory, Yangon, Myanmar
                Article
                10.1099/jmm.0.000888
                99186eb8-09e6-4d62-be3a-d34cd127c686
                © 2019
                History

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