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      Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review

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          Abstract

          Objective:

          Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with many influences contributing to the disease. The aim of this study was to identify the most important risk factors.

          Methods:

          This study was conducted in 2017 with a structured overview in the Science Directe, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science (ISI) databases. In the first step, articles were extracted based on their titles and abstracts; the quality of 43 articles was evaluated using the STORBE tool. Inclusion criteria were studies carried out on human, English language (first step), year of the study and the study type (second step).

          Results:

          Finally, 1,381 articles were found, of which 1,269 were excluded in primary and secondary screening. In reviewing the references of the remaining 44 papers, 4 studies were added. Finally, 43 articles were selected for the quality assessment process. A total of 52 risk factors for gastric cancer were identified and classified into nine important categories: diet, lifestyle, genetic predisposition, family history, treatment and medical conditions, infections, demographic characteristics, occupational exposures and ionizing radiation’.

          Conclusion:

          Several environmental and genetic factors are involved in the development of gastric cancer. Regarding the role of changes in ‘diet and lifestyle’, considering appropriate nutrition and improving the level of education and awareness of people is vital for early diagnosis and timely treatment of this disease, especially in people with a family history and genetic predisposition.

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          Most cited references 99

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          Prospective study of risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in the Linxian general population trial cohort in China.

          Esophageal cancer incidence and mortality rates in Linxian, China are among the highest in the world. We examined risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia cancer (GCC), and gastric noncardia cancer (GNCC) in a population-based, prospective study of 29,584 adults who participated in the Linxian General Population Trial. All study participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included questions on demographic characteristics, personal and family history of disease, and lifestyle factors. After 15 years of follow-up, a total of 3,410 incident upper gastrointestinal cancers were identified, including 1,958 ESCC, 1,089 GCC and 363 GNCC. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risks. Increased age and a positive family history of esophageal cancer (including ESCC or GCC) were significantly associated with risk at all 3 cancer sites. Additional risk factors for ESCC included being born in Linxian, increased height, cigarette smoking and pipe smoking; for GCC, male gender, consumption of moldy breads and pipe smoking; and for GNCC, male gender and cigarette smoking. Protective factors for ESCC included formal education, water piped into the home, increased consumption of meat, eggs and fresh fruits and increased BMI; for GCC, formal education, water piped into the home, increased consumption of eggs and fresh fruits and alcohol consumption; and for GNCC, increased weight and BMI. General socioeconomic status (SES) is a common denominator in many of these factors and improving SES is a promising approach for reducing the tremendous burden of upper gastrointestinal cancers in Linxian.
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            Carcinoma of the stomach: A review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, molecular genetics and chemoprevention.

            Carcinoma of the stomach is still the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide, although the incidence and mortality have fallen dramatically over the last 50 years in many regions. The incidence of gastric cancer varies in different parts of the world and among various ethnic groups. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate of stomach cancer is only 20 per cent. Stomach cancer can be classified into intestinal and diffuse types based on epidemiological and clinicopathological features. The etiology of gastric cancer is multifactorial and includes both dietary and nondietary factors. The major diet-related risk factors implicated in stomach cancer development include high content of nitrates and high salt intake. Accumulating evidence has implicated the role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The development of gastric cancer is a complex, multistep process involving multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators, and signaling molecules. A plausible program for gastric cancer prevention involves intake of a balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables, improved sanitation and hygiene, screening and treatment of H. pylori infection, and follow-up of precancerous lesions. The fact that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer offers scope for nutritional chemoprevention. Animal models have been extensively used to analyze the stepwise evolution of gastric carcinogenesis and to test dietary chemopreventive agents. Development of multitargeted preventive and therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer is a major challenge for the future.
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              Health Sector Evolution Plan in Iran; Equity and Sustainability Concerns.

              In 2014, a series of reforms, called as the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), was launched in the health system of Iran in a stepwise process. HSEP was mainly based on the fifth 5-year health development national strategies (2011-2016). It included different interventions to: increase population coverage of basic health insurance, increase quality of care in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) affiliated hospitals, reduce out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for inpatient services, increase quality of primary healthcare, launch updated relative value units (RVUs) of clinical services, and update tariffs to more realistic values. The reforms resulted in extensive social reaction and different professional feedback. The official monitoring program shows general public satisfaction. However, there are some concerns for sustainability of the programs and equity of financing. Securing financial sources and fairness of the financial contribution to the new programs are the main concerns of policy-makers. Healthcare providers' concerns (as powerful and influential stakeholders) potentially threat the sustainability and efficiency of HSEP. Previous experiences on extending health insurance coverage show that they can lead to a regressive healthcare financing and threat financial equity. To secure financial sources and to increase fairness, the contributions of people to new interventions should be progressive by their income and wealth. A specific progressive tax would be the best source, however, since it is not immediately feasible, a stepwise increase in the progressivity of financing must be followed. Technical concerns of healthcare providers (such as nonplausible RVUs for specific procedures or nonefficient insurance-provider processes) should be addressed through proper revision(s) while nontechnical concerns (which are derived from conflicting interests) must be responded through clarification and providing transparent information. The requirements of HSEP and especially the key element of progressive tax should be considered properly in the coming sixth national development plan (2016-2021).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
                Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev
                Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP
                West Asia Organization for Cancer Prevention (Iran )
                1513-7368
                2476-762X
                2018
                : 19
                : 3
                : 591-603
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Student Research Committee, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Hazrat-e Aliasghar Hospital, Shiraz, Iran
                [2 ] Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz, Iran
                [3 ] Health Human Resources Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [4 ] School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ] For Correspondence: stud5149961841@ 123456sums.ac.ir
                Article
                APJCP-19-591
                10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.3.591
                5980829
                29579788
                Copyright: © Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

                Categories
                Review

                risk factors, gastric, cancer

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