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      COVID-19 among Chinese high school graduates: Psychological distress, growth, meaning in life and resilience

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          Abstract

          This study examined perceived impact of COVID-19 (PIC) on mental health outcomes (anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic growth) and roles of resilience and meaning in life. In October 2020, 430 Chinese high school graduates completed self-report measures. Results showed that 4.4% and 5.8% participants had anxiety and depression symptoms (⩾10), respectively, while 13.3% developed posttraumatic growth (⩾37.5). Resilience and meaning in life mediated the relationships between PIC and mental health outcomes. These findings underline psychological distress and growth coexisted in COVID-19, while resilience and meaning in life served as important protective factors of mental health.

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          Most cited references66

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          A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7.

          Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders; however, there is no brief clinical measure for assessing GAD. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-report scale to identify probable cases of GAD and evaluate its reliability and validity. A criterion-standard study was performed in 15 primary care clinics in the United States from November 2004 through June 2005. Of a total of 2740 adult patients completing a study questionnaire, 965 patients had a telephone interview with a mental health professional within 1 week. For criterion and construct validity, GAD self-report scale diagnoses were compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; and health care use. A 7-item anxiety scale (GAD-7) had good reliability, as well as criterion, construct, factorial, and procedural validity. A cut point was identified that optimized sensitivity (89%) and specificity (82%). Increasing scores on the scale were strongly associated with multiple domains of functional impairment (all 6 Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey scales and disability days). Although GAD and depression symptoms frequently co-occurred, factor analysis confirmed them as distinct dimensions. Moreover, GAD and depression symptoms had differing but independent effects on functional impairment and disability. There was good agreement between self-report and interviewer-administered versions of the scale. The GAD-7 is a valid and efficient tool for screening for GAD and assessing its severity in clinical practice and research.
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            The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.

            While considerable attention has focused on improving the detection of depression, assessment of severity is also important in guiding treatment decisions. Therefore, we examined the validity of a brief, new measure of depression severity. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the PRIME-MD diagnostic instrument for common mental disorders. The PHQ-9 is the depression module, which scores each of the 9 DSM-IV criteria as "0" (not at all) to "3" (nearly every day). The PHQ-9 was completed by 6,000 patients in 8 primary care clinics and 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics. Construct validity was assessed using the 20-item Short-Form General Health Survey, self-reported sick days and clinic visits, and symptom-related difficulty. Criterion validity was assessed against an independent structured mental health professional (MHP) interview in a sample of 580 patients. As PHQ-9 depression severity increased, there was a substantial decrease in functional status on all 6 SF-20 subscales. Also, symptom-related difficulty, sick days, and health care utilization increased. Using the MHP reinterview as the criterion standard, a PHQ-9 score > or =10 had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 88% for major depression. PHQ-9 scores of 5, 10, 15, and 20 represented mild, moderate, moderately severe, and severe depression, respectively. Results were similar in the primary care and obstetrics-gynecology samples. In addition to making criteria-based diagnoses of depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 is also a reliable and valid measure of depression severity. These characteristics plus its brevity make the PHQ-9 a useful clinical and research tool.
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              Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health in the General Population: A Systematic Review

              Highlights • The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in unprecedented hazards to mental health globally. • Relatively high rates of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, and stress were reported in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in eight countries. • Common risk factors associated with mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic include female gender, younger age group (≤40 years), presence of chronic/psychiatric illnesses, unemployment, student status, and frequent exposure to social media/news concerning COVID-19. • Mitigation of COVID-19 induced psychological distress requires government intervention and individual efforts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Health Psychol
                J Health Psychol
                HPQ
                sphpq
                Journal of Health Psychology
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                1359-1053
                1461-7277
                4 February 2021
                4 February 2021
                : 1359105321990819
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Sichuan International Studies University, China
                [2 ]Yangtze Normal University, China
                Author notes
                [*]Yongju Yu, School of Sociology and Law, Sichuan International Studies University, No. 33 Zhuangzhi Road, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400031, China. Email: yyj002788@ 123456sisu.edu.cn
                [*]Yongjuan Yu, School of Finance and Economics, Yangtze Normal University, No. 16 Juxian Avenue, Fuling District, Chongqing 408100, China. Email: yuyongjuan78@ 123456163.com
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0803-2520
                Article
                10.1177_1359105321990819
                10.1177/1359105321990819
                8685742
                33541149
                9a6d0aef-953d-4a61-a89c-13e070eefb48
                © The Author(s) 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                History
                Funding
                Funded by: Social Science Planning Project of Chongqing, China, ;
                Award ID: 2020YBSH107
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
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                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                anxiety,depression,meaning in life,perceived impact of covid-19,posttraumatic growth,psychological resilience

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