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      Body Fat Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Although childhood obesity is a major problem, routine assessment methods do not reflect fat mass. Body mass index, which is most commonly used, gives an indication of weight for height and not a degree of adiposity. Methods: Bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were used in a group of obese children to assess body fat. Results: Comparison between DEXA and commercial bioelectrical impedance scales in 46 children showed a highly significant correlation (R = 0.944, p < 0.001) in fat mass. Fat mass measured using bioelectrical impedance was 2.4 kg lower compared to measurement using DEXA. Conclusion: These bioelectrical scales may prove useful in the management of childhood obesity as they are able to provide important clinical information regarding fat mass and adiposity.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Childhood obesity.

          In March 2004 a group of 65 physicians and other health professionals representing nine countries on four continents convened in Israel to discuss the widespread public health crisis in childhood obesity. Their aim was to explore the available evidence and develop a consensus on the way forward. The process was rigorous, although time and resources did not permit the development of formal evidence-based guidelines. In the months before meeting, participants were allocated to seven groups covering prevalence, causes, risks, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and psychology. Through electronic communication each group selected the key issues for their area, searched the literature, and developed a draft document. Over the 3-d meeting, these papers were debated and finalized by each group before presenting to the full group for further discussion and agreement. In developing a consensus statement, this international group has presented the evidence, developed recommendations, and provided a platform aimed toward future corrective action and ongoing debate in the international community.
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            What use is the BMI?

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              Developmental changes in energy expenditure and physical activity in children: evidence for a decline in physical activity in girls before puberty.

              To examine individual changes in energy expenditure and physical activity during prepubertal growth in boys and girls. Total energy expenditure (TEE), resting energy expenditure, physical activity-related energy expenditure, reported physical activity, and fat and fat-free mass were measured three times over 5 years in 11 boys (5.3 +/- 0.9 years at baseline) and 11 girls (5.5 +/- 0.9 years at baseline). Four-year increases in fat ( approximately 6 kg) and fat-free mass ( approximately 10 kg) and resting energy expenditure ( approximately 200 kcal/day) were similar in boys and girls. In boys, TEE increased at each measurement year, whereas in girls, there was an initial increase from age 5.5 (1365 +/- 330 kcal/day) to age 6.5 (1815 +/- 392 kcal/day); however, by age 9.5, TEE was reduced significantly (1608 +/- 284 kcal/day) with no change in energy intake. The gender difference in TEE changes over time was explained by a 50% reduction in physical activity (kcal/day and hours/week) in girls between the ages of 6.5 and 9.5. These data suggest a gender dimorphism in the developmental changes in energy expenditure before adolescence, with a conservation of energy use in girls achieved through a marked reduction in physical activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                June 2007
                10 January 2007
                : 68
                : 1
                : 8-10
                Affiliations
                Department of Endocrinology, Birmingham Children’s Hospital, Birmingham, UK
                Article
                98481 Horm Res 2007;68:8–10
                10.1159/000098481
                17213729
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 9, Pages: 3
                Categories
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