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      Avaliação imediata da troponina I cardíaca em pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio Translated title: Early evaluation of cardiac troponin I in patients submitted to myocardial revascularization

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          Abstract

          O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de determinar o comportamento evolutivo imediato e o valor prognóstico em termos de sobrevivência tardia, da dosagem sérica de troponina I em pacientes submetidos a operações cardíacas para revascularização miocárdica. Foram analisados 108 pacientes, não selecionados, sendo 85 (78,7%) do sexo masculino, submetidos à operação de revascularização do miocárdio com ou sem auxílio de circulação extracorpórea, no período de dezembro de 1996 a dezembro de 1997. O método empregado na dosagem da troponina I foi o da Quimioluminiscência, em equipamento Acess da Sanofi-Pasteur. Foram feitas dosagens no pré-operatório, logo na chegada na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, no primeiro e no segundo dia de pós-operatório, adquirindo-se como normais valores abaixo de 0,1 nanogramas por mililitro (ng/ml). Foram estabelecidos níveis de corte para avaliação prognóstica. Os pacientes foram avaliados pós-operatoriamente, registrando-se a evolução em meses, com vistas à determinação das taxas de sobrevivência. A dosagem de troponina I em pacientes submetidos a operações de revascularização miocárdica mostrou comportamento evolutivo agudo característico, com importante elevação dos níveis séricos no primeiro dia de pós-operatório. Pacientes operados com auxílio de circulação extracorpórea (CEC) mostraram níveis significativamente mais elevados, mas não houve correlação com tempo de isquemia ou tempo de CEC, sugerindo que a elevação da troponina I seja decorrente de sofrimento miocárdico específico (obstrução coronária, oclusão de ponte, etc.) e não decorrente da CEC propriamente dita. Foi ainda possível determinar que os níveis de corte estabelecidos separam pacientes com mau prognóstico, uma vez que valores acima de 2,5 ng/ml no primeiro dia de pós-operatório levaram a taxas de mortalidade de 33% a 50% em tempo máximo de seis meses de seguimento. A troponina I eleva-se em pacientes submetidos a operações de revascularização miocárdica, traduzindo sofrimento celular mesmo nos casos sem emprego de circulação extracorpórea. Valores de troponina I em torno de 2,5 ng/ml no primeiro dia de pós-operatório devem alertar para a necessidade de medidas diagnósticas ou terapêuticas mais agressivas.

          Translated abstract

          The present study was developed to determine the early and late prognosis of patients submitted to myocardial revascularization (with or without extracorporeal circulation) and the relationship with troponin-I serum levels at the postoperative period. One hundred and eight patients were studied between December 1996 and December 1997. The serum troponin-I levels were determined by chemoluminescence (Acess - Sanofi-Pasteur) during four periods: preoperative, admission to Intensive Care Unit, first postoperative day and second postoperative day. Values below 0.1 ng/ml were considered normal. Cut-off levels for prognostic evaluation (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 ng/ml) were chosen. Follow-up was measured in months with the aim of construction survival curves. The only event considered was cardiac death. Serum troponin-I had a characteristic early behaviour with higher levels on the first postoperative day. When extracorporeal circulation was utilized (Group I), the levels were significantly higher but there was no correlation with ischemic or perfusion times. Perhaps the troponin-I high serum levels could be due to specific myocardial injury, i. e. coronary artery obstruction, saphenous bypass graft acute failure and so on and not due to extracorporeal circulation per se. It was also possible to determine the cut-off levels as markers of poor prognosis. Serum troponin-I higher than 2.5 ng/ml on the first postoperative day were followed by mortality rates between 33% and 50% up to 6 months of follow-up. Serum troponin-I levels were higher than normal in patients submitted to myocardial revascularization with or without extracorporeal circulation, signifying myocardial cell injury. Values close to 2.5 ng/ml on the first postoperative day alert to the necessity of more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic measures.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Cardiac troponin I and troponin T: are enzymes still relevant as cardiac markers?

           J. Mair (1997)
          Creatine kinase (CK) MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme 1 are not heart-specific. By contrast, the regulatory proteins troponin I and troponin T are expressed in three different isoforms, one for slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers, one for fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers, and one for cardiac muscle (cTnI, cTnT). cTnI and cTnT are usually not detectable in patients without myocardial damage, which is a prerequisite for high diagnostic performance. After acute myocardial infarction (AMI) cTnI, cTnT, and CKMB mass have a comparable early sensitivity. cTnI and cTnT usually peak in parallel except for patients without reperfusion in whom cTnI peaks about 1 day and cTnT approximately 3-4 days after onset of AMI. Both stay increased for at least 4-5 days. cTnT tends to stay increased longer than cTnI. Because the sensitivities of cTnI and cTnT for myocardial injury are comparable, their specificities are the main topic of current debate. Recent reports on mismatches of cTnI and cTnT in patients with renal failure and myopathy without other evidence for myocardial injury suggest that cTnT could be reexpressed similar to CKMB and LDH-1 in chronically damaged human skeletal muscle. In contrast to cTnT, CKMB, and LDH-1, cTnI is not expressed in skeletal muscle during fetal development. So far, an increase in cTnI has been reported only after myocardial damage. Because of currently higher costs, troponin measurement should be restricted at present to clinical settings that really require their high specificity. Based on its distinct functional association with the metabolism of acute ischemic myocardium and according to initial clinical results, glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB is a promising enzyme for the early detection of ischemic myocardial damage.
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            Cardioplegia isotérmica anterógrada retrógrada de baixo volume

             DM Braile,  D Braile (1997)
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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Use of cardiac troponin I to diagnose perioperative myocardial infarction in coronary artery bypass grafting

               J Mair,  C. Larue,  P Mair (1994)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbccv
                Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
                Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular (São José do Rio Preto )
                1678-9741
                July 1999
                : 14
                : 3
                : 247-253
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto Brazil
                [2 ] Sociedade Portuguesa de Beneficência
                S0102-76381999000300009
                10.1590/S0102-76381999000300009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                CARDIAC & CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS
                SURGERY

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