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      Patient Preference and Adherence (submit here)

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      Level of Patient Health Literacy and Associated Factors Among Adult Admitted Patients at Public Hospitals of West Shoa Oromia, Ethiopia

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      Patient preference and adherence
      Dove
      patient, health literacy, admitted patients

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          Abstract

          Background

          Health literacy is a capacity of individual to gain knowledge that helps to use health information in different levels as needed for self-management and to communicate with health providers. Health literacy has a significant impact on patient health outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess level of patient health literacy and associated factors among adult admitted patients at public hospitals of West Shoa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia.

          Methods

          A cross-sectional, quantitative study was carried out among adult admitted patients at public hospitals of West Shoa Oromia, Ethiopia. An interviewer-administered Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) instrument tool was used to assess patients’ health literacy. All statistical analysis were performed using SPSS for windows program version 21.

          Results

          A total of 403 patients participated in this study. Majority of the participants were males 235 (58.3%) and aged 40–59 years (n = 164, 40.7%). Overall, 59.1% (n = 238) of the participants have high health literacy. Those respondents who are above grade 12 (tertiary) were 2.45 times more likely to have high health literacy (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.98) compared to those respondents not able to read and write . Participants who had age greater or equal to sixty were 65% less likely to have high health literacy (AOR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.70).

          Conclusion and Recommendation

          Forty percent of the participants have low health literacy. Age and education are significant factors in health literacy. Ethiopian ministry of health, Oromia regional health bureau, West shoa zonal office and healthcare professionals have to provide an intervention in enhancing the level of health literacy by mass media and written material.

          Most cited references30

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          Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models

          Background Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. Results The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Conclusions Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings.
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            Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic review.

            Approximately 80 million Americans have limited health literacy, which puts them at greater risk for poorer access to care and poorer health outcomes. To update a 2004 systematic review and determine whether low health literacy is related to poorer use of health care, outcomes, costs, and disparities in health outcomes among persons of all ages. English-language articles identified through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Cochrane Library databases and hand-searching (search dates for articles on health literacy, 2003 to 22 February 2011; for articles on numeracy, 1966 to 22 February 2011). Two reviewers independently selected studies that compared outcomes by differences in directly measured health literacy or numeracy levels. One reviewer abstracted article information into evidence tables; a second reviewer checked information for accuracy. Two reviewers independently rated study quality by using predefined criteria, and the investigative team jointly graded the overall strength of evidence. 96 relevant good- or fair-quality studies in 111 articles were identified: 98 articles on health literacy, 22 on numeracy, and 9 on both. Low health literacy was consistently associated with more hospitalizations; greater use of emergency care; lower receipt of mammography screening and influenza vaccine; poorer ability to demonstrate taking medications appropriately; poorer ability to interpret labels and health messages; and, among elderly persons, poorer overall health status and higher mortality rates. Poor health literacy partially explains racial disparities in some outcomes. Reviewers could not reach firm conclusions about the relationship between numeracy and health outcomes because of few studies or inconsistent results among studies. Searches were limited to articles published in English. No Medical Subject Heading terms exist for identifying relevant studies. No evidence concerning oral health literacy (speaking and listening skills) and outcomes was found. Low health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes and poorer use of health care services. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
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              The grounded psychometric development and initial validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)

              Background Health literacy has become an increasingly important concept in public health. We sought to develop a comprehensive measure of health literacy capable of diagnosing health literacy needs across individuals and organisations by utilizing perspectives from the general population, patients, practitioners and policymakers. Methods Using a validity-driven approach we undertook grounded consultations (workshops and interviews) to identify broad conceptually distinct domains. Questionnaire items were developed directly from the consultation data following a strict process aiming to capture the full range of experiences of people currently engaged in healthcare through to people in the general population. Psychometric analyses included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory. Cognitive interviews were used to ensure questions were understood as intended. Items were initially tested in a calibration sample from community health, home care and hospital settings (N=634) and then in a replication sample (N=405) comprising recent emergency department attendees. Results Initially 91 items were generated across 6 scales with agree/disagree response options and 5 scales with difficulty in undertaking tasks response options. Cognitive testing revealed that most items were well understood and only some minor re-wording was required. Psychometric testing of the calibration sample identified 34 poorly performing or conceptually redundant items and they were removed resulting in 10 scales. These were then tested in a replication sample and refined to yield 9 final scales comprising 44 items. A 9-factor CFA model was fitted to these items with no cross-loadings or correlated residuals allowed. Given the very restricted nature of the model, the fit was quite satisfactory: χ 2 WLSMV(866 d.f.) = 2927, p<0.000, CFI = 0.936, TLI = 0.930, RMSEA = 0.076, and WRMR = 1.698. Final scales included: Feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers; Having sufficient information to manage my health; Actively managing my health; Social support for health; Appraisal of health information; Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers; Navigating the healthcare system; Ability to find good health information; and Understand health information well enough to know what to do. Conclusions The HLQ covers 9 conceptually distinct areas of health literacy to assess the needs and challenges of a wide range of people and organisations. Given the validity-driven approach, the HLQ is likely to be useful in surveys, intervention evaluation, and studies of the needs and capabilities of individuals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Patient Prefer Adherence
                Patient Prefer Adherence
                ppa
                Patient preference and adherence
                Dove
                1177-889X
                30 March 2022
                2022
                : 16
                : 853-859
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Ambo University , Ambo, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yonas Gurmu Dugasa, Department of Nursing, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Ambo University , P. O. Box: 19, Ambo, Ethiopia, Email yonasgurmu@gmail.com
                Article
                357741
                10.2147/PPA.S357741
                8977217
                35387256
                9b370ba9-accf-437a-bbec-96947fa5d8fd
                © 2022 Gurmu Dugasa.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                History
                : 25 January 2022
                : 23 March 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, References: 30, Pages: 7
                Funding
                Funded by: Ambo University;
                The study was funded by Ambo University. This funding source had role in the design of this study and have role during its execution, analyses, interpretation of the data.
                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine
                patient,health literacy,admitted patients
                Medicine
                patient, health literacy, admitted patients

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