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      Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Silicate Cements

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          Abstract

          Abstract Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement (PC) are calcium silicate cements. They have similar physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties. The addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) to PC provides radiopacity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may improve some properties of cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AgNPs on physicochemical/mechanical properties and antibacterial activity of white MTA (WMTA) and PC associated with ZrO2. The following materials were evaluated: WMTA; PC 70% + ZrO2 30%; WMTA+ AgNPs; and PC 70% + ZrO2 30% + AgNPs. The study evaluated radiopacity, setting time, pH, compressive strength and solubility. For radiopacity analysis, radiographs were made alongside an aluminum (Al) step wedge. To evaluate the antibacterial activity, direct contact test was performed on planktonic cells and Enterococcus faecalis biofilm induced on bovine root dentin for 14 days. The experimental periods were 5 and 15 h. Data were obtained as CFU mL-1. The obtained data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). The addition of AgNPs to WMTA increased the pH, lowered the solubility and the initial and final setting times. The addition of AgNPs to PC/ZrO2 maintained the pH, lowered the solubility, and increased the setting time and compressive strength. The radiopacity of all materials was higher than 4 mmAl. The addition of AgNPs promoted an increase in antibacterial activity for calcium silicate cements and favored the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the materials.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo Mineral trióxido agregado (MTA) e cimento Portland (CP) são cimentos à base de silicato de cálcio. Eles apresentam propriedades físico-químicas, mecânica e biológicas semelhantes. A adição de óxido de zircônio (ZrO2) ao CP confere radiopacidade. Nanopartículas de prata (NPsAg) podem melhorar propriedades dos cimentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da NPsAg nas propriedades físico-químicas, mecânicas e na atividade antibacteriana do MTA branco (WMTA) e CP associado ao ZrO2. Os seguintes materiais foram avaliados: WMTA; CP 70% + ZrO2 30%; ; WMTA + NPsAg; CP 70% + ZrO2 30% + NPsAg. Foram avaliados a radiopacidade, tempo de presa, pH, resistência à compressão e solubilidade. Para análise da radiopacidade foram tiradas radiografias ao lado de uma escala de alumínio (Al). Para avaliar a atividade antibacteriana, foi realizado o teste de contato direto sobre células planctônicas e biofilme de Enterococcus faecalis formado em dentina radicular bovina durante 14 dias. Os períodos experimentais foram 5 e 15 h. Os dados foram obtidos como UFC mL-1 e submetidos aos testes de ANOVA e Tukey (p<0,05). A adição de NPsAg ao WMTA elevou o pH, diminuiu a solubilidade e os tempos de presa inicial e final. A adição de NPsAg ao CP/ZrO2 manteve o pH, diminuiu a solubilidade, aumentou o tempo de presa e a resistência à compressão. A radiopacidade de todos os materiais foi maior do que 4 mmAl. A adição de NPsAg promoveu um aumento da atividade antibacteriana dos cimentos à base de silicato de cálcio e favoreceu as propriedades físico-químicas e mecânicas dos materiais.

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          Most cited references39

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          Hydration mechanisms of mineral trioxide aggregate.

          To report the hydration mechanism of white mineral trioxide aggregate (White MTA, Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Products, Tulsa, OK, USA). The chemical constitution of white MTA was studied by viewing the powder in polished sections under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydration of both white MTA and white Portland cement (PC) was studied by characterizing cement hydrates viewed under the SEM, plotting atomic ratios, performing quantitative energy dispersive analyses with X-ray (EDAX) and by calculation of the amount of anhydrous clinker minerals using the Bogue calculation. Un-hydrated MTA was composed of impure tri-calcium and di-calcium silicate and bismuth oxide. The aluminate phase was scarce. On hydration the white PC produced a dense structure made up of calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide, monosulphate and ettringite as the main hydration products. The un-reacted cement grain was coated with a layer of hydrated cement. In contrast MTA produced a porous structure on hydration. Levels of ettringite and monosulphate were low. Bismuth oxide was present as un-reacted powder but also incorporated with the calcium silicate hydrate. White MTA was deficient in alumina suggesting that the material was not prepared in a rotary kiln. On hydration this affected the production of ettringite and monosulphate usually formed on hydration of PC. The bismuth affected the hydration mechanism of MTA; it formed part of the structure of C-S-H and also affected the precipitation of calcium hydroxide in the hydrated paste. The microstructure of hydrated MTA would likely be weaker when compared with that of PC.
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            Comparison of the physical and mechanical properties of MTA and portland cement.

            This study evaluated and compared the pH, radiopacity, setting time, solubility, dimensional change, and compressive strength of ProRoot MTA (PMTA), ProRoot MTA (tooth colored formula) (WMTA), white Portland cement (WP), and ordinary Portland cement (OP). The results showed that PMTA and Portland cement have very similar physical properties. However, the radiopacity of Portland cement is much lower than that of PMTA. The compressive strength of PMTA was greater than Portland cement at 28 days. The major constituent of PMTA is Portland cement. Given the low cost of Portland cement and similar properties when compared to PMTA, it is reasonable to consider Portland cement as a possible substitute for PMTA in endodontic applications. However, industrially manufactured Portland cement is not approved currently for use in the United States and therefore no clinical recommendation can be made for its use in the human body. Further in vitro and in vivo tests, especially with regards its biocompatibility, should be conducted to ascertain if it meets the FDA requirements for use as a medical device.
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              Evaluation of the physical properties of an endodontic Portland cement incorporating alternative radiopacifiers used as root-end filling material.

              To investigate the physical and chemical properties of Portland cement (PC) loaded with alternative radiopacifying materials for use as root-end filling materials in a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-like system. Portland cement loaded with barium sulphate, gold and silver/tin alloy was mixed with water, and the physical and chemical properties of the hydrated cements were evaluated. MTA and intermediate restorative material (IRM) were used as controls. The radiopacity was compared to the equivalent thickness of aluminium, and the setting time of the cements was assessed using an indentation technique. The compressive strength and the stress-strain relationship were determined at 28 days. The stress-strain relationship was determined by monitoring the strain generated when the cement was subjected to compressive load. In addition, the pH was determined in water and simulated body fluid for a period of 28 days. The radiopacity of the cements using alternative radiopacifiers was comparable to MTA (P > 0.05). IRM demonstrated a higher radiopacity than all the materials tested (P 0.05). IRM was the weakest cement tested (P < 0.001). The cement loaded with gold radiopacifier had comparable strength to MTA (P = 1). The stress-strain relationship was linear for all the cements with IRM generating more strain on loading. Within the parameters set in this study, bismuth oxide in MTA can be replaced by gold or silver/tin alloy. The physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cement replaced with alternative radiopacifiers were similar and comparable to ProRoot MTA.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bdj
                Brazilian Dental Journal
                Braz. Dent. J.
                Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil )
                0103-6440
                1806-4760
                October 2016
                : 27
                : 5
                : 508-514
                Affiliations
                [2] Salvador Bahia orgnameUniversidade Federal da Bahia Brazil
                [3] São Carlos orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [1] Araraquara São Paulo orgnameUniversidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                Article
                S0103-64402016000500508
                10.1590/0103-6440201600689
                27982226
                9bcec7a2-c29b-4b2e-9409-6ff73c8101bf

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 13 March 2016
                : 07 July 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 25, Pages: 7
                Product

                SciELO Brazil


                Enterococcus faecalis,silver nanoparticles,physicochemical,antibacterial,calcium silicate cement

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