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      Functional analysis of tanshinone IIA that blocks the redox function of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1

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          Abstract

          Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein possessing both DNA repair and redox regulatory activities. It has been shown that blocking redox function leads to genotoxic, antiangiogenic, cytostatic, and proapoptotic effects in cells. Therefore, the selective inhibitors against APE1’s redox function can be served as potential pharmaceutical candidates in cancer therapeutics. In the present study, we identified the biological specificity of the Chinese herbal compound tanshinone IIA (T2A) in blocking the redox function of APE1. Using dual polarization interferometry, the direct interaction between APE1 and T2A was observed with a K D value at subnanomolar level. In addition, we showed that T2A significantly compromised the growth of human cervical cancer and colon cancer cells. Furthermore, the growth-inhibitory or proapoptotic effect of T2A was diminished in APE1 knockdown or redox-deficient cells, suggesting that the cytostatic effect of T2A might be specifically through inhibiting the redox function of APE1. Finally, T2A pretreatment enhanced the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation or other chemotherapeutic agents in human cervical cancer and colon cancer cell lines. The data presented herein suggest T2A as a promising bioactive inhibitor of APE1 redox activity.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1.

          Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1, also known as REF-1) was isolated based on its ability to cleave at AP sites in DNA or activate the DNA binding activity of certain transcription factors. We review herein topics related to this multi-functional DNA repair and stress-response protein. APE1 displays homology to Escherichia coli exonuclease III and is a member of the divalent metal-dependent α/β fold-containing phosphoesterase superfamily of enzymes. APE1 has acquired distinct active site and loop elements that dictate substrate selectivity, and a unique N-terminus which at minimum imparts nuclear targeting and interaction specificity. Additional activities ascribed to APE1 include 3'-5' exonuclease, 3'-repair diesterase, nucleotide incision repair, damaged or site-specific RNA cleavage, and multiple transcription regulatory roles. APE1 is essential for mouse embryogenesis and contributes to cell viability in a genetic background-dependent manner. Haploinsufficient APE1(+/-) mice exhibit reduced survival, increased cancer formation, and cellular/tissue hyper-sensitivity to oxidative stress, supporting the notion that impaired APE1 function associates with disease susceptibility. Although abnormal APE1 expression/localization has been seen in cancer and neuropathologies, and impaired-function variants have been described, a causal link between an APE1 defect and human disease remains elusive. Ongoing efforts aim at delineating the biological role(s) of the different APE1 activities, as well as the regulatory mechanisms for its intra-cellular distribution and participation in diverse molecular pathways. The determination of whether APE1 defects contribute to human disease, particularly pathologies that involve oxidative stress, and whether APE1 small-molecule regulators have clinical utility, is central to future investigations.
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            APE1/Ref-1 interacts with NPM1 within nucleoli and plays a role in the rRNA quality control process.

            APE1/Ref-1 (hereafter, APE1), a DNA repair enzyme and a transcriptional coactivator, is a vital protein in mammals. Its role in controlling cell growth and the molecular mechanisms that fine-tune its different cellular functions are still not known. By an unbiased proteomic approach, we have identified and characterized several novel APE1 partners which, unexpectedly, include a number of proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis and RNA processing. In particular, a novel interaction between nucleophosmin (NPM1) and APE1 was characterized. We observed that the 33 N-terminal residues of APE1 are required for stable interaction with the NPM1 oligomerization domain. As a consequence of the interaction with NPM1 and RNA, APE1 is localized within the nucleolus and this localization depends on cell cycle and active rRNA transcription. NPM1 stimulates APE1 endonuclease activity on abasic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) but decreases APE1 endonuclease activity on abasic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) by masking the N-terminal region of APE1 required for stable RNA binding. In APE1-knocked-down cells, pre-rRNA synthesis and rRNA processing were not affected but inability to remove 8-hydroxyguanine-containing rRNA upon oxidative stress, impaired translation, lower intracellular protein content, and decreased cell growth rate were found. Our data demonstrate that APE1 affects cell growth by directly acting on RNA quality control mechanisms, thus affecting gene expression through posttranscriptional mechanisms.
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              Human apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) expression and prognostic significance in osteosarcoma: enhanced sensitivity of osteosarcoma to DNA damaging agents using silencing RNA APE1 expression inhibition.

              Osteosarcoma is the most common highly malignant bone tumor with primary appearance during the second and third decade of life. It is associated with a high risk of relapse, possibly resulting from a developed resistance to chemotherapy agents. As a means to overcome osteosarcoma tumor cell resistance and/or to sensitize tumor cells to currently used chemotherapeutic treatments, we examined the role of human apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) in osteosarcoma tumor cell resistance and prognosis. Sixty human samples of archived conventional (intramedullary) osteosarcoma were analyzed. APE1 protein was elevated in 72% of these tissues and among those with a known clinical outcome, there was a significant correlation between high APE1 expression levels and reduced survival times. The remaining 28% of samples showed low expression of APE1. Given that APE1 was overexpressed in osteosarcoma, we decreased APE1 levels using silencing RNA (siRNA) targeting technology in the osteosarcoma cell line, human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS), to enhance chemo- and radiation sensitivity. Using siRNA targeted technology of APE1, protein levels were reduced by more than 90% within 24 hours, remained low for 72 hours, and returned to normal levels at 96 hours. There was also a clear loss of APE1 endonuclease activity following APE1-siRNA treatment. A decrease in APE1 levels in siRNA-treated human osteogenic sarcoma cells led to enhanced cell sensitization to the DNA damaging agents: methyl methanesulfonate, H(2)O(2), ionizing radiation, and chemotherapeutic agents. The findings presented here have both prognostic and therapeutic implications for treating osteosarcoma. The APE1-siRNA results demonstrate the feasibility for the therapeutic modulation of APE1 using a variety of molecules and approaches.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                03 November 2014
                : 8
                : 2147-2160
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Division of Molecular Radiation Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
                [3 ]Institute of Immunology, PLA, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dong Wang, Cancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042, People’s Republic of China, Email dongwang64@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                dddt-8-2147
                10.2147/DDDT.S71124
                4224025
                25395832
                © 2014 Sui et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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