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      Quality of Care Is Improved by Rapid Short Incubation MALDI-ToF Identification from Blood Cultures as Measured by Reduced Length of Stay and Patient Outcomes as Part of a Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Bacteremia in Pediatric Patients

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          Abstract

          Sepsis has seen an incremental increase in cases of about 13% annually in the USA and accounts for approximately 4400 deaths among pediatric patients. Early identification of the specific pathogen allows the clinician to ensure that the antibiotic coverage is optimal, an intervention that has been shown to improve patient outcomes in sepsis. Our study’s objective was to assess the impact of a rapid Bruker MALDI-Tof identification protocol on pediatric sepsis cases by assessing various indicators. We assessed the quality of care by measuring the following indicators; time to identification of the pathogen, initiation of the most appropriate antibiotic, length of stay (LOS) in hospital and patient outcomes, using a retrospective review over three consecutive years. In total 92 pediatric patients, similar in age and gender distributions were assessed; 37 in 2012, 33 in 2013 and 22 in 2014. The introduction of MALDI-TOF identification in 2013 led to a significant decrease in time to identify a pathogen by 21.03 hours (p = 1.95E-05). A short incubation MALDI-TOF identification protocol in 2014 further reduced time to identification by 17.75 hours (p = 2.48E-3). Overall in 2014 this led to a trend to earlier optimization of antibiotics by 20.2 hours (p = 0.14) and a reduction in length of stay after the implementation of MALDI-ToF identification in 2013 of 3.07 days and a further reduction of 8.92 days after the introduction of the rapid short incubation identification protocol using MALDI-Tof in 2014 (P = 0.12). By evaluating the subgroup of patients where antibiotics were changed, our study confirmed that patients received appropriate therapy 48.8% (20.2 hours) earlier compared to conventional methods leading to a decrease in length of stay of 23.65 days after the implementation of MALDI-ToF identification and a further reduction of 9.82 days in 2014 compared to 2012 (p = 0.02). In 2014 outcomes between the patients needing a change in their antibiotic compared to the patients where the empirical therapy was considered to be optimal were similar with respect to length of stay; 13.04 and 10.93 days (p = 0.34). In the 2012 group there was a significant increase in the length of stay in the group needing change in excess of 30 days (p = 0.02) compared to the group where empirical therapy was considered to be optimal, this clearly showed an improvement in the quality of care received after the rapid identification was instituted in 2014. The 2012 group had a four times overall increased sepsis associated mortality risk compared to the 2014 group and when empirical antibiotics needed to be optimized this risk was 7 times compared to the 2014 group. We conclude that rapid identification of bacterial pathogens in pediatric blood cultures with a rapid incubation MALDI-TOF identification protocol plays an important role in improving quality of care as part of a multidisciplinary approach to pediatric bacteremia and sepsis.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Integrating rapid pathogen identification and antimicrobial stewardship significantly decreases hospital costs.

          Early diagnosis of gram-negative bloodstream infections, prompt identification of the infecting organism, and appropriate antibiotic therapy improve patient care outcomes and decrease health care expenditures. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, methods to acquire and rapidly translate critical results into timely therapies for gram-negative bloodstream infections are needed. To determine whether mass spectrometry technology coupled with antimicrobial stewardship provides a substantially improved alternative to conventional laboratory methods. An evidence-based intervention that integrated matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and near-real-time antimicrobial stewardship practices was implemented. Outcomes in patients hospitalized prior to initiation of the study intervention were compared to those in patients treated after implementation. Differences in length of hospitalization and hospital costs were assessed in survivors. The mean hospital length of stay in the preintervention group survivors (n = 100) was 11.9 versus 9.3 days in the intervention group (n = 101; P = .01). After multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with decreased length of hospitalization included the intervention (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.88) and active therapy at 48 hours (hazard ratio, 2.9; confidence interval, 1.15-7.33). Mean hospital costs per patient were $45 709 in the preintervention group and $26 162 in the intervention group (P = .009). Integration of rapid identification and susceptibility techniques with antimicrobial stewardship significantly improved time to optimal therapy, and it decreased hospital length of stay and total costs. This innovative strategy has ramifications for other areas of patient care.
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            Patient and hospital correlates of clinical outcomes and resource utilization in severe pediatric sepsis.

            Our goal was to describe patient and hospital characteristics associated with in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and charges for critically ill children with severe sepsis. Our study consisted of a retrospective study of children 0 to 19 years of age hospitalized with severe sepsis using the 2003 Kids' Inpatient Database. We generated national estimates of rates of hospitalization and then compared in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and total charges according to patient and hospital characteristics using multivariable regression methods. Severity of illness was measured by using all-patient refined diagnosis-related group severity of illness classification into minor, moderate, major, and extreme severity. There were an estimated 21,448 hospitalizations for severe pediatric sepsis nationally in 2003. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.2%. Comorbid illness was present in 34% of hospitalized children. Most (70%) of the extremely ill children were admitted to children's hospitals. Length of stay was longer among patients with higher illness severity and nonsurvivors compared with survivors (13.5 vs 8.5 days). Hospitalizations at urban or children's hospitals were also associated with longer length of stay than nonchildren's or rural hospitals, respectively. Higher charges were associated with higher illness severity, and nonsurvivors had 2.5-fold higher total charges than survivors. Also, higher charges were observed among hospitalizations in urban or children's hospitals. In multivariable regression analysis, multiple comorbid illnesses, multiple organ dysfunction, and greater severity of illness were associated with higher odds of mortality and longer length of stay. Higher hospital charges and longer length of stay were observed among transfer hospitalizations and among hospitalizations to children's hospitals and nonchildren's teaching hospitals compared with hospitals, which had neither children's nor teaching status. Mortality from severe pediatric sepsis is associated with patient illness severity, comorbid illness, and multiple organ dysfunction. Many characteristics are associated with resource consumption, including type of hospital, source of admission, and illness severity.
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              • Article: not found

              Epidemiology of bacteremia in febrile infants in the United States.

              Fever in infants is a common clinical dilemma. The objective of this study was to present data from hospital systems across the northeast, southeast, mid-west, and western United States to identify the pathogens causing bacteremia in febrile infants admitted to general care units.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                11 August 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Microbiology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada
                [2 ]Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada
                [3 ]Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada
                Universita degli Studi di Parma, ITALY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceived and designed the experiments: JD MJ.

                • Performed the experiments: JD AS AA DS.

                • Analyzed the data: JD MJ AS AA.

                • Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DS.

                • Wrote the paper: JD AS MJ.

                [¤a]

                Current address: Division of Microbiology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada

                [¤b]

                Current address: Clinical Skills Building, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada

                [¤c]

                Current address: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada

                Article
                PONE-D-16-08008
                10.1371/journal.pone.0160618
                4981314
                27513860
                © 2016 Delport et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 10
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pharmacology
                Drugs
                Antimicrobials
                Antibiotics
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Microbial Control
                Antimicrobials
                Antibiotics
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Analytical Chemistry
                Mass Spectrometry
                Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Spectrum Analysis Techniques
                Mass Spectrometry
                Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
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                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
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                Pediatrics
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