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      Dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture

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          Female urethral stricture is an underdiagnosed and overlooked cause of female bladder outlet obstruction. The possible etiologies may be infection, prior dilation, difficult catheterization with subsequent fibrosis, urethral surgery, trauma, or idiopathic. We present our technique and results of dorsal onlay full thickness vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture.

          Materials and Methods:

          A retrospective review was performed on 16 female patients with mid-urethral stricture who underwent dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty from January 2007 to June 2011. Of these, 13 patients had previously undergone multiple Hegar dilatations, three had previous internal urethrotomies. The preoperative work up included detailed voiding history, local examination, uroflowmetry, calibration, and micturating cystourethrogram.


          All patients had mid-urethral stricture. Mean age was 47.5 years. Mean Q max improved from 6.2 to 27.6 ml/s. Mean residual volume decreased from 160 to 20 ml. Mean duration of follow-up was 24.5 months (6 months to 3 years). Only one patient required self-calibration for 6 months after which her stricture stabilized. None of the patient was incontinent.


          Dorsal vaginal onlay graft urethroplasty could be considered as an effective way to treat female urethral stricture.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Female urethral strictures: successful management with long-term clean intermittent catheterization after urethral dilatation.

          To report our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of urethral stricture in women. A retrospective review of records and video-urodynamics identified women treated for urethral stricture between 1999 and 2004 at one institution by one surgeon. Urethral stricture was defined as a fixed anatomical narrowing between the bladder neck and distal urethra of or = 30 F. After a period of indwelling catheterization, the women were placed on clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) at least once daily, and monitored every 3-6 months. At each follow-up, the urethra was catheterized to exclude recurrence. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom scores were obtained at presentation and at the initial 3 month follow-up. Seven women met the criteria for urethral stricture, and were followed for a mean (range) of 21 (6-34) months. All were initially maintained on daily CISC, and some were gradually reduced to weekly CISC for the duration of follow-up. No patient had a recurrent stricture while on CISC, and none has had a urethral reconstruction to manage their condition. AUA symptom scores improved in all of the women by a mean of 10.7 points. No complications related to catheterization were noted. Urethral stricture is rare in women. Long-term CISC in these women is safe and effective, and can avoid the need for major reconstructive surgery.
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            Dorsal onlay lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for urethral strictures in women.

            To describe the technique and results of dorsal onlay lingual mucosal graft (LMG) urethroplasty for the definitive management of urethral strictures in women. In all, 15 women (mean age 42 years) with a history suggestive of urethral stricture who had undergone multiple urethral dilatations and/or urethrotomy were selected for dorsal onlay LMG urethroplasty after thorough evaluation, from October 2006 to March 2008. After a suprameatal inverted-U incision, the dorsal aspect of the urethra was dissected and urethrotomy was done at the 12 o'clock position across the strictured segment. Tailored LMG harvested from the ventrolateral aspect of the tongue was then sutured to the urethrotomy wound over an 18 F silicone catheter. The preoperative mean maximum urinary flow rate of 7.2 mL/s increased to 29.87 mL/s, 26.95 mL/s and 26.86 mL/s with a 'normal' flow rate curve at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up, respectively. One patient at the 3-month follow-up had submeatal stenosis and required urethral dilatation thrice at monthly intervals. At the 1-year follow-up, none of the present patients had any neurosensory complications, urinary incontinence, or long-term functional/aesthetic complication at the donor site. LMG urethroplasty using the dorsal onlay technique should be offered for correction of persistent female urethral stricture as it provides a simple, safe and effective approach with durable results.
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              Dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty for female urethral strictures.

              We describe the feasibility and complications of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty in female patients with urethral stenosis. From April 2005 to July 2005, 3 women 45 to 65 years old (average age 53.7) with urethral stricture disease underwent urethral reconstruction using a dorsal buccal mucosa graft. Stricture etiology was unknown in 1 patient, ischemic in 1 and iatrogenic in 1. Buccal mucosa graft length was 5 to 6 cm and width was 2 to 3 cm. The urethra was freed dorsally until the bladder neck and then opened on the roof. The buccal mucosa patch was sutured to the margins of the opened urethra and the new roof of the augmented urethra was quilted to the clitoris corpora. In all cases voiding urethrogram after catheter removal showed a good urethral shape with absent urinary leakage. No urinary incontinence was evident postoperatively. On urodynamic investigation all patients showed an unobstructed Blaivas-Groutz nomogram. Two patients complained about irritative voiding symptoms at catheter removal, which subsided completely and spontaneously after a week. The dorsal approach with buccal mucosa graft allowed us to reconstruct an adequate urethra in females, decreasing the risks of incontinence and fistula.

                Author and article information

                Indian J Urol
                Indian J Urol
                Indian Journal of Urology : IJU : Journal of the Urological Society of India
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Apr-Jun 2013
                : 29
                : 2
                : 124-128
                Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, India
                Author notes
                For correspondence: Dr. Rakesh Kapoor, Professor and Head, Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, SGPGIMS, Raebarelly Road, Lucknow, India. E-mail: rkapoor@ 123456sgpgi.ac.in
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Urology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article


                dorsal onlay, female urethral stricture, vaginal graft


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