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      Oral health practice and health-related quality of life of a group of children during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Istanbul


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          During the pandemic period of coronavirus disease, appropriate oral health management and disease prevention of children are very important for children's oral and general health. The aim of this study was to survey to better understand in children's dental health and dietary habits and to learn about parents' attitudes toward dental treatment and clinical factors associated with their QoL using the Turkish version of KIDSCREEN-10 during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the general public.


          A two-part questionnaire, namely Part 1 addressed topics regarding changes in general and dental health, dietary habits of children under quarantine, and sociodemographic characteristics of the family and Part 2 impact of QoL was assessed by the KIDSCREEN-10 scale with 10 questions. The questionnaire was sent online using WhatsApp to a convenience sample of mothers with children between the age group of 8 and 18 years, who lived in Istanbul. Variables were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test for independent samples and Univariate F-test, ANOVA according to the characteristics of variables which were analyzed.


          This study included 328 from 557 mothers with 58% respondent rate. The consumption of fast food, packaged food, and carbonated beverages decreased during the COVID-19 outbreak. Half of the mothers of children reported that they were anxious or fearful about their children visiting dentists during the pandemic and 64.2% of the children missed routine dental visits. The KIDSCREEN-10 scores for 13 years old or older children were influenced more by the COVID-19 pandemic than those for the 8–12 years old, who had a better QoL ( P = 0.008).


          The results of this study emphasize the importance of oral health and QoL of children during the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. The general perception of QoL in this group of Turkish children seemed to be substantially affected by COVID-19 outbreak.

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          The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak

          Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Based on the large number of infected people that were exposed to the wet animal market in Wuhan City, China, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of COVID-19. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. In this review, we highlights the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease.
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            Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice

            A novel β-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused severe and even fetal pneumonia explored in a seafood market of Wuhan city, Hubei province, China, and rapidly spread to other provinces of China and other countries. The 2019-nCoV was different from SARS-CoV, but shared the same host receptor the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The natural host of 2019-nCoV may be the bat Rhinolophus affinis as 2019-nCoV showed 96.2% of whole-genome identity to BatCoV RaTG13. The person-to-person transmission routes of 2019-nCoV included direct transmission, such as cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation transmission, and contact transmission, such as the contact with oral, nasal, and eye mucous membranes. 2019-nCoV can also be transmitted through the saliva, and the fetal–oral routes may also be a potential person-to-person transmission route. The participants in dental practice expose to tremendous risk of 2019-nCoV infection due to the face-to-face communication and the exposure to saliva, blood, and other body fluids, and the handling of sharp instruments. Dental professionals play great roles in preventing the transmission of 2019-nCoV. Here we recommend the infection control measures during dental practice to block the person-to-person transmission routes in dental clinics and hospitals.
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              Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey

              Background On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. Methods Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. Results A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18–30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. Conclusions In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.

                Author and article information

                J Educ Health Promot
                J Educ Health Promot
                Journal of Education and Health Promotion
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                31 August 2021
                : 10
                [1] Faculty of Dentistry, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Marmara University, İstanbul, Turkey
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Işıl Özgül Kalyoncu, Faculty of Dentistry, Eastern Mediterranean University,Famagusta, 99628, North Cyprus, Turkey. E-mail: isil.kalyoncu@ 123456emu.edu.tr
                Copyright: © 2021 Journal of Education and Health Promotion

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Original Article

                covid-19, health-related quality of life, oral health


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