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      The Scientific Legacy of the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program

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          Abstract

          The CARIACO (Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean) Ocean Time-Series Program station, located at 10.50°N, 64.66°W, observed biogeochemical and ecological processes in the Cariaco Basin of the southwestern Caribbean Sea from November 1995 to January 2017. The program completed 232 monthly core cruises, 40 sediment trap deployment cruises, and 40 microbiogeochemical process cruises. Upwelling along the southern Caribbean Sea occurs from approximately November to August. High biological productivity (320–628 g C m −2 y −1) leads to large vertical fluxes of particulate organic matter, but only approximately 9–10 g C m −2 y −1 fall to the bottom sediments (∼1–3% of primary production). A diverse community of heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms, viruses, and protozoa thrives within the oxic–anoxic interface. A decrease in upwelling intensity from approximately 2003 to 2013 and the simultaneous overfishing of sardines in the region led to diminished phytoplankton bloom intensities, increased phytoplankton diversity, and increased zooplankton densities. The deepest waters of the Cariaco Basin exhibited long-term positive trends in temperature, salinity, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, phosphate, methane, and silica. Earthquakes and coastal flooding also resulted in the delivery of sediment to the seafloor. The program's legacy includes climate-quality data from suboxic and anoxic habitats and lasting relationships between international researchers.

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          Most cited references 101

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          Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability and its relation to El Niño-Southern Oscillation

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            A north atlantic climate pacemaker for the centuries.

             Jamie R. Kerr (2000)
            Although El Niño and La Niña are the largest single sources of global interannual climate variability, climate shifts on longer time scales than El Niño's 2 to 7 years are also drawing the attention of researchers. On multidecadal time scales of 40 to 80 years, a restless North Atlantic seems to be at work, alternately countering and enhancing humankind's alterations of climate. The evidence for this is turning up in such records as tree rings, ice cores, and corals.
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              Rapid climate changes in the tropical Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Marine Science
                Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci.
                Annual Reviews
                1941-1405
                1941-0611
                January 03 2019
                January 03 2019
                : 11
                : 1
                : 413-437
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA;
                [2 ]Estación de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita, Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Punta de Piedras, Estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela
                [3 ]Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA
                [4 ]Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC 20546, USA
                [5 ]School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
                [6 ]Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Oriente, Boca Del Rio, Estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095150
                © 2019

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