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      Effects of propofol versus sevoflurane on cerebral oxygenation and cognitive outcome in patients with impaired cerebral oxygenation

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          Abstract

          Background

          Postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction induced by anesthetics, particularly in elderly patients with impaired oxygenation, is a common complication of surgery and is eliciting increased interest in clinical practice. To investigate the effects of anesthetics on neurocognition, we compared the effects of propofol versus sevoflurane on cerebral oxygenation and cognitive outcome in patients with impaired cerebral oxygenation undergoing general anesthesia.

          Methods

          Sixty-three patients with impaired cerebral oxygenation (jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation [SjvO 2] <50%) or cerebral blood flow/cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([CBF/CMRO 2] ≤15%) undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomly allocated into propofol group (group P) or sevoflurane group (group S). The clinical parameters and jugular venous bulb blood gas analysis were monitored throughout the surgical procedure. Cognitive function was assessed with the mini-mental state examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment at day 1 and day 7 following surgery. S100β protein in plasma was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

          Results

          The SjvO 2 increased during anesthesia induction and surgery when compared to baseline but had no significant difference between group P and group S. When compared to baseline, the CBF/CMRO 2 was increased only at the end of surgery and extubation in group P; however, the CBF/CMRO 2 in group S was increased during anesthesia induction at 1 hour, 2 hours, end of surgery, and extubation. Furthermore, the CBF/CMRO 2 in group S was significantly higher than that in group P during anesthesia induction at 1 hour, 2 hours, and end of surgery. S100β protein did not significantly change at extubation and 1 day after surgery in both groups when compared to baseline. There was no significant difference in mini-mental state examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores between group P and group S at all time points.

          Conclusion

          Sevoflurane showed similar effects in postoperative neurocognitive function as propofol but could improve cerebral oxygenation in patients with impaired cerebral oxygenation.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Predictors of cognitive dysfunction after major noncardiac surgery.

          The authors designed a prospective longitudinal study to investigate the hypothesis that advancing age is a risk factor for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after major noncardiac surgery and the impact of POCD on mortality in the first year after surgery. One thousand sixty-four patients aged 18 yr or older completed neuropsychological tests before surgery, at hospital discharge, and 3 months after surgery. Patients were categorized as young (18-39 yr), middle-aged (40-59 yr), or elderly (60 yr or older). At 1 yr after surgery, patients were contacted to determine their survival status. At hospital discharge, POCD was present in 117 (36.6%) young, 112 (30.4%) middle-aged, and 138 (41.4%) elderly patients. There was a significant difference between all age groups and the age-matched control subjects (P < 0.001). At 3 months after surgery, POCD was present in 16 (5.7%) young, 19 (5.6%) middle-aged, and 39 (12.7%) elderly patients. At this time point, the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction was similar between age-matched controls and young and middle-aged patients but significantly higher in elderly patients compared to elderly control subjects (P < 0.001). The independent risk factors for POCD at 3 months after surgery were increasing age, lower educational level, a history of previous cerebral vascular accident with no residual impairment, and POCD at hospital discharge. Patients with POCD at hospital discharge were more likely to die in the first 3 months after surgery (P = 0.02). Likewise, patients who had POCD at both hospital discharge and 3 months after surgery were more likely to die in the first year after surgery (P = 0.02). Cognitive dysfunction is common in adult patients of all ages at hospital discharge after major noncardiac surgery, but only the elderly (aged 60 yr or older) are at significant risk for long-term cognitive problems. Patients with POCD are at an increased risk of death in the first year after surgery.
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            Cerebral oxygen desaturation predicts cognitive decline and longer hospital stay after cardiac surgery.

            Previous studies have reported an 11% to 75% incidence of postoperative cognitive decline among cardiac surgery patients. The INVOS Cerebral Oximeter (Somanetics Corp, Troy, MI) is a Food and Drug Administration approved device that measures regional cerebral oxygen (rSo(2)) saturation. The purpose of this study is to examine whether decreased rSo(2) predicts cognitive decline and prolonged hospital stay after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The rSo(2) was monitored intraoperatively in a cohort of primary CABG patients. Patients were prospectively randomized to a blinded control group or an unblinded intervention group. Cognitive function was assessed preoperatively, postoperatively, and at 3 months using a battery of standardized neurocognitive tests. Cognitive decline was defined as a decrease of one standard deviation or more in performance on at least one neurocognitive measure. The rSo(2) desaturation score was calculated by multiplying rSo(2) below 50% by time (seconds). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess cognitive decline and hospital stay. The change in cognitive performance was also assessed using a multivariate linear regression model. Patients with rSo(2) desaturation score greater than 3,000%-second had a significantly higher risk of early postoperative cognitive decline [p = 0.024]. Patients with rSo(2) desaturation score greater than 3,000%-second also had a near threefold increased risk of prolonged hospital stay (>6 days) [p = 0.007]. Intraoperative cerebral oxygen desaturation is significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and prolonged hospital stay after CABG.
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              Optimised Anaesthesia to Reduce Post Operative Cognitive Decline (POCD) in Older Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery, a Randomised Controlled Trial

              Background The study determined the one year incidence of post operative cognitive decline (POCD) and evaluated the effectiveness of an intra-operative anaesthetic intervention in reducing post-operative cognitive impairment in older adults (over 60 years of age) undergoing elective orthopaedic or abdominal surgery. Methods and Trial Design The design was a prospective cohort study with a nested randomised, controlled intervention trial, using intra-operative BiSpectral index and cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring to enable optimisation of anaesthesia depth and cerebral oxygen saturation in older adults undergoing surgery. Results In the 52 week prospective cohort study (192 surgical patients and 138 controls), mild (χ2 = 17.9 p<0.0001), moderate (χ2 = 7.8 p = 0.005) and severe (χ2 = 5.1 p = 0.02) POCD were all significantly higher after 52 weeks in the surgical patients than among the age matched controls. In the nested RCT, 81 patients were randomized, 73 contributing to the data analysis (34 intervention, 39 control). In the intervention group mild POCD was significantly reduced at 1, 12 and 52 weeks (Fisher’s Exact Test p = 0.018, χ2 = 5.1 p = 0.02 and χ2 = 5.9 p = 0.015), and moderate POCD was reduced at 1 and 52 weeks (χ2 = 4.4 p = 0·037 and χ2 = 5.4 p = 0.02). In addition there was significant improvement in reaction time at all time-points (Vigilance Reaction Time MWU Z =  −2.1 p = 0.03, MWU Z = −2.7 p = 0.004, MWU Z = −3.0 p = 0.005), in MMSE at one and 52 weeks (MWU Z = −2.9 p = 0.003, MWU Z = −3.3 p = 0.001), and in executive function at 12 and 52 weeks (Trail Making MWU Z = −2.4 p = .0.018, MWU Z = −2.4 p = 0.019). Conclusion POCD is common and persistent in older adults following surgery. The results of the nested RCT indicate the potential benefits of intra-operative monitoring of anaesthetic depth and cerebral oxygenation as a pragmatic intervention to reduce post-operative cognitive impairment. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN39503939
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                18 January 2016
                : 12
                : 81-85
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesia, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesia, Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital of Fujian Province, Zhangzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wen-qi Huang, Department of Anesthesia, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 20 2882 3388, Email wenqihuang2015@ 123456sina.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                tcrm-12-081
                10.2147/TCRM.S97066
                4723018
                26848269
                © 2016 Guo et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                sevoflurane, saturation, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, propofol

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