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      Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure

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      Nature Reviews Cardiology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA, and over 23 million worldwide, and rising. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five. Although promising evidence shows that the age-adjusted incidence of HF may have plateaued, HF still carries substantial morbidity and mortality, with 5-year mortality that rival those of many cancers. HF represents a considerable burden to the health-care system, responsible for costs of more than $39 billion annually in the USA alone, and high rates of hospitalizations, readmissions, and outpatient visits. HF is not a single entity, but a clinical syndrome that may have different characteristics depending on age, sex, race or ethnicity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) status, and HF etiology. Furthermore, pathophysiological differences are observed among patients diagnosed with HF and reduced LVEF compared with HF and preserved LVEF, which are beginning to be better appreciated in epidemiological studies. A number of risk factors, such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and diabetes, among others, have been identified that both predict the incidence of HF as well as its severity. In this Review, we discuss key features of the epidemiology and risk profile of HF.

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          Most cited references 95

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          Irbesartan in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

          Approximately 50% of patients with heart failure have a left ventricular ejection fraction of at least 45%, but no therapies have been shown to improve the outcome of these patients. Therefore, we studied the effects of irbesartan in patients with this syndrome. We enrolled 4128 patients who were at least 60 years of age and had New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of at least 45% and randomly assigned them to receive 300 mg of irbesartan or placebo per day. The primary composite outcome was death from any cause or hospitalization for a cardiovascular cause (heart failure, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, arrhythmia, or stroke). Secondary outcomes included death from heart failure or hospitalization for heart failure, death from any cause and from cardiovascular causes, and quality of life. During a mean follow-up of 49.5 months, the primary outcome occurred in 742 patients in the irbesartan group and 763 in the placebo group. Primary event rates in the irbesartan and placebo groups were 100.4 and 105.4 per 1000 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.05; P=0.35). Overall rates of death were 52.6 and 52.3 per 1000 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.14; P=0.98). Rates of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes that contributed to the primary outcome were 70.6 and 74.3 per 1000 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.08; P=0.44). There were no significant differences in the other prespecified outcomes. Irbesartan did not improve the outcomes of patients with heart failure and a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00095238.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Outcome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in a population-based study.

            The importance of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is increasingly recognized. We conducted a study to evaluate the epidemiologic features and outcomes of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and to compare the findings with those from patients who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. From April 1, 1999, through March 31, 2001, we studied 2802 patients admitted to 103 hospitals in the province of Ontario, Canada, with a discharge diagnosis of heart failure whose ejection fraction had also been assessed. The patients were categorized in three groups: those with an ejection fraction of less than 40 percent (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction), those with an ejection fraction of 40 to 50 percent (heart failure with borderline ejection fraction), and those with an ejection fraction of more than 50 percent (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction). Two groups were studied in detail: those with an ejection fraction of less than 40 percent and those with an ejection fraction of more than 50 percent. The main outcome measures were death within one year and readmission to the hospital for heart failure. Thirty-one percent of the patients had an ejection fraction of more than 50 percent. Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction were more likely to be older and female and to have a history of hypertension and atrial fibrillation. The presenting history and clinical examination findings were similar for the two groups. The unadjusted mortality rates for patients with an ejection fraction of more than 50 percent were not significantly different from those for patients with an ejection fraction of less than 40 percent at 30 days (5 percent vs. 7 percent, P=0.08) and at 1 year (22 percent vs. 26 percent, P=0.07); the adjusted one-year mortality rates were also not significantly different in the two groups (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.94 to 1.36; P=0.18). The rates of readmission for heart failure and of in-hospital complications did not differ between the two groups. Among patients presenting with new-onset heart failure, a substantial proportion had an ejection fraction of more than 50 percent. The survival of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was similar to that of patients with reduced ejection fraction. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Trends in heart failure incidence and survival in a community-based population.

              The epidemic of heart failure has yet to be fully investigated, and data on incidence, survival, and sex-specific temporal trends in community-based populations are limited. To test the hypothesis that the incidence of heart failure has declined and survival after heart failure diagnosis has improved over time but that secular trends have diverged by sex. Population-based cohort study using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Patients were 4537 Olmsted County residents (57% women; mean [SD] age, 74 [14] years) with a diagnosis of heart failure between 1979 and 2000. Framingham criteria and clinical criteria were used to validate the diagnosis Incidence of heart failure and survival after heart failure diagnosis. The incidence of heart failure was higher among men (378/100 000 persons; 95% confidence interval [CI], 361-395 for men; 289/100 000 persons; 95% CI, 277-300 for women) and did not change over time among men or women. After a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (range, 0-23.8 years), 3347 deaths occurred, including 1930 among women and 1417 among men. Survival after heart failure diagnosis was worse among men than women (relative risk, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.24-1.43) but overall improved over time (5-year age-adjusted survival, 43% in 1979-1984 vs 52% in 1996-2000, P<.001). However, men and younger persons experienced larger survival gains, contrasting with less or no improvement for women and elderly persons. In this community-based cohort, the incidence of heart failure has not declined during 2 decades, but survival after onset of heart failure has increased overall, with less improvement among women and elderly persons.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cardiology
                Nat Rev Cardiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-5002
                1759-5010
                January 2011
                November 9 2010
                January 2011
                : 8
                : 1
                : 30-41
                Article
                10.1038/nrcardio.2010.165
                3033496
                21060326
                © 2011

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