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      Early Variation of Respiratory Indexes to Predict Death or ICU Admission in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2-Related Respiratory Failure


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          In severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related respiratory failure, the prognostic value of clinically based or blood-gas-based respiratory indexes is unclear.


          We aimed to assess the prognostic value of Respiratory Index (RI, oxygen saturation [SpO2]/respiratory rate [RR]), RR-oxygenation index (ROX, SpO2/fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2]/RR), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio (P/F), or standard PaO2/FiO2 ratio ( STP/F) at admission and of their variation during hospitalization in SARS-CoV-2-related respiratory failure.


          In 100 consecutive patients hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2-related respiratory failure, we assessed the association of RI, ROX, P/F and STP/F, and death; secondary outcome was the composite of 7-day death or intensive care unit (ICU) admission.


          ROX <3.85 at admission (hazard ratio [HR] 2.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29–6.77) and decreasing RI or P/F during hospitalization (RI: HR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00–1.09; P/F: HR 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02) were predictors of in-hospital death. RI ≤3.8, ROX <3.85, and P/F <100 at admission were predictors for death or ICU admission (RI: HR 3.77, 95% CI: 1.30–10.98; ROX: HR 4.56, 95% CI: 1.90–10.96; P/F: HR 7.37, 95% CI: 1.59–34.2). The decrease of RI (HR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03–1.25), ROX (HR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.11–1.88), P/F (HR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01–1.15), or STP/F (HR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.08) during hospitalization was associated with 7-day death or ICU admission.


          In patients with SARS-CoV-2-related respiratory failure, easy-to-calculate clinically based respiratory indexes at admission and their variation during hospital stay can be used to assess and monitor the risk for death or ICU admission.

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          Most cited references36

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          Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study

          Summary Background An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Information about critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 52 critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital (Wuhan, China) between late December, 2019, and Jan 26, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, as of Feb 9, 2020. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Findings Of 710 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 52 critically ill adult patients were included. The mean age of the 52 patients was 59·7 (SD 13·3) years, 35 (67%) were men, 21 (40%) had chronic illness, 51 (98%) had fever. 32 (61·5%) patients had died at 28 days, and the median duration from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) to death was 7 (IQR 3–11) days for non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (64·6 years [11·2] vs 51·9 years [12·9]), more likely to develop ARDS (26 [81%] patients vs 9 [45%] patients), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (30 [94%] patients vs 7 [35%] patients), either invasively or non-invasively. Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired infection occurred in seven (13·5%) patients. Interpretation The mortality of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is considerable. The survival time of the non-survivors is likely to be within 1–2 weeks after ICU admission. Older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities and ARDS are at increased risk of death. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia poses great strain on critical care resources in hospitals, especially if they are not adequately staffed or resourced. Funding None.
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            Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

            The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg), moderate (100 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 200 mm Hg), and severe (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 100 mm Hg) and 4 ancillary variables for severe ARDS: radiographic severity, respiratory system compliance (≤40 mL/cm H2O), positive end-expiratory pressure (≥10 cm H2O), and corrected expired volume per minute (≥10 L/min). The draft Berlin Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P < .001) and increased median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (5 days; interquartile [IQR], 2-11; 7 days; IQR, 4-14; and 9 days; IQR, 5-17, respectively; P < .001). Compared with the AECC definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P < .001). This updated and revised Berlin Definition for ARDS addresses a number of the limitations of the AECC definition. The approach of combining consensus discussions with empirical evaluation may serve as a model to create more accurate, evidence-based, critical illness syndrome definitions and to better inform clinical care, research, and health services planning.
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              High-flow oxygen through nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.

              Whether noninvasive ventilation should be administered in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is debated. Therapy with high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula may offer an alternative in patients with hypoxemia.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                15 March 2022
                15 March 2022
                : 1-6
                Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine − Stroke Unit, S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
                Author notes
                Copyright © 2022 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                : 6 September 2021
                : 11 January 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 23, Pages: 6
                Clinical Investigations

                Respiratory medicine
                covid-19,respiratory distress syndrome,respiratory insufficiency,respiratory rate


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