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Two new fossil genera and species of Cerocephalinae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae), including the first record from the Eocene

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      AbstractCerocephalinae (Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps characterized by a number of derived diagnostic features. Their hosts are endophytic beetles. So far, 43 species of Cerocephalinae have been described, including one fossil species from the Miocene. In this study, we add two new genera and species from Baltic and Dominican amber to the fossil record. Tenuicornus dominicus gen. et sp. n. is the second genus described from Dominican amber, and Pteropilosa lailarabanorum gen. et sp. n., described from Baltic amber, represents the oldest record of the subfamily, pushing the minimum age of Cerocephalinae back to the Eocene. Diagnostic characters of both species are discussed in comparison with other Cerocephalinae. An updated key to extant and fossil Cerocephalinae is presented.

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      Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

      The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides.
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        A second Eocene species of death-watch beetle belonging to the genus Microbregma Seidlitz (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea) with a checklist of fossil Ptinidae.

        Based on a well-preserved specimen from Upper Eocene Baltic amber (Kaliningrad region, Russia), Microbregma waldwico sp. nov., the second fossil species of this genus, is described. The new species is similar to the extant Holarctic M. emarginatum (Duftschmid), 1825, and fossil M. sucinoemarginatum (Kuśka), 1992, but differs in its shorter abdominal ventrite 1 (about 0.43 length of ventrite 2) and larger body (5.1 mm). A key to species of the genus Microbregma is given, and a check-list of described fossil Ptinidae is provided. The fossil record of Ptinidae now includes 48 species in 27 genera and 8 subfamilies.

          Author and article information

          [1 ]Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Abteilung Arthropoda, Adenauerallee 160, 53113 Bonn, Germany
          [2 ]Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany
          Author notes
          Corresponding author: Ralph S. Peters ( r.peters@ )

          Academic editor: M. Engel

          Pensoft Publishers
          14 December 2015
          : 545
          : 89-100
          Marcel Bläser, Lars Krogmann, Ralph S. Peters

          This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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