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      Stimulant Medication Use and Response to Growth Hormone Therapy: An NCGS Database Analysis

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          Background/Aims: Determine (1) frequency of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and (2) growth responses in growth hormone (GH)-treated children who are receiving ADHD medication versus GH alone. Methods: Prepubertal children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or GH deficiency (IGHD) enrolled in Genentech’s National Cooperative Growth Study. ADHD treatment was determined by documentation of psycho-stimulant medication use at enrollment. Results: ADHD medication use increased from 0.8% (7/850) in 1985 to 5.8% (752/12,113) in 2005. First-year GH treatment response for ADHD + IGHD versus IGHD: 8.5 ± 2.0 vs. 9.4 ± 2.6 cm/year, but when adjusted for age, sex, and enrollment body mass index, the difference is clinically insignificant (–0.4 cm/year). First-year growth was similar in all ISS: 8.1 ± 1.9 versus 8.6 ± 2.1 cm/year (ADHD + ISS vs. ISS, an adjusted –0.2-cm/year difference). Conclusion: Increasing numbers of GH-treated children are taking ADHD medications and their growth responses during the first year of GH therapy are similar to those not taking ADHD medications.

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          Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of US children.

          To determine the US national prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and whether prevalence, recognition, and treatment vary by socioeconomic group. Cross-sectional survey. Nationally representative sample of the US population from 2001 to 2004. Eight- to 15-year-old children (N = 3082) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (caregiver module) was used to ascertain the presence of ADHD in the past year based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) criteria. Prior diagnosis of ADHD by a health professional and ADHD medication use were assessed by caregiver report. Of the children, 8.7% met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. The poorest children (lowest quintile) were more likely than the wealthiest (highest quintile) to fulfill criteria for ADHD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9). Among children meeting DSM-IV ADHD criteria, 47.9% had a prior diagnosis of ADHD and 32.0% were treated consistently with ADHD medications during the past year. Girls were less likely than boys to have their disorder identified (AOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8), and the wealthiest children were more likely than the poorest to receive regular medication treatment (AOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.3-9.1). Of US children aged 8 to 15 years, 8.7%, an estimated 2.4 million, meet DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Less than half of children meeting DSM-IV criteria report receiving either a diagnosis of ADHD or regular medication treatment. Poor children are most likely to meet criteria for ADHD yet are least likely to receive consistent pharmacotherapy.
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            Growth on stimulant medication; clarifying the confusion: a review.

            To get an overview of the studies of growth in height in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with stimulant medication, to establish the consistencies and to try to resolve the discrepancies. Twenty nine studies were reviewed following a Medline search: 22 related to children, six to late adolescents or adults, and one to children and adults. Children: Eleven studies gave results consistent with height attenuation on stimulant medication: eight were longitudinal, one was cross-sectional, and two showed growth rebound on ceasing medication. Studies with negative findings were inadequately powered (n = 3), lacked controls or statistical analysis (n = 3), measured height velocity without reference to treatment duration (n = 2), or used inappropriate growth parameters (n = 1), controls (n = 1), or normative data (n = 1). Late adolescents/adults treated with stimulant medication in childhood: Two studies associated childhood gastrointestinal side effects with attenuated late adolescent or adult height; all six cross-sectional studies had negative findings. The methodologies varied widely but there was some consistency in the degree of attenuation shown in studies with positive findings. The most sensitive methods analysed the changes in z-scores (standard deviation scores) or calculated the height deficits from paired measurements taken before and after an initial period of treatment with stimulant medication. The height deficit amounted to approximately 1 cm/year during the first 1-3 years of treatment. Further research is needed into the causal mechanisms, the rate of physical maturation, and the long term implications for final stature.
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              National estimates and factors associated with medication treatment for childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

              In this study we identified child and family-level characteristics that were associated with medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using nationally representative survey data. National Survey of Children's Health data from 79264 youth 4 to 17 years of age were used. Data were weighted to adjust for the complex survey design of the National Survey of Children's Health. Gender-specific logistic regression models were generated to identify child and family-level characteristics that were collectively associated with current medication status among youth with a reported diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nationally, 7.8% of youth aged 4 to 17 years had a reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, and 4.3% had both a disorder diagnosis and were currently taking medication for the disorder. Current medication treatment among youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with white race, younger age, English spoken in the home, health care coverage, a health care contact within the last year, and reported psychological difficulties. Gender-specific logistic regression models revealed that, together, younger age, higher income, health care coverage, having psychological difficulties, and a health care contact in the past year were associated with medication use among boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Among girls with the disorder, younger age, psychological difficulties, fair-to-poor paternal mental health status, and a health care contact within the last year were collectively associated with current medication use. CONCLUSIONS. Regardless of gender, younger age, the presence of psychological difficulties, and a recent health care contact were significantly associated with medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, additional health care access and income variables among boys and paternal mental health status among girls represented gender-specific factors that were also associated with medication treatment for the disorder. Future studies should characterize how and when the burden associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder leads to treatment, support, or services for this prevalent and impairing neurobehavioral disorder.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                September 2009
                01 September 2009
                : 72
                : 3
                : 160-166
                aUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Ark., and bGenentech, Inc., South San Francisco, Calif., USA
                232491 Horm Res 2009;72:160–166
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 22, Pages: 7
                Original Paper


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