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      Long-Term Clinical Outcome in Familial and Sporadic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Background: The definition and the behaviour of familial papillary thyroid cancer (FPTC) compared to the sporadic form (SPTC) are still debated. Some authors believe that only families with 3 or more affected members represent an actual example of familial diseases. Objectives: The objective of the study was to analyse the clinicopathological features and the outcome of sporadic and familial PTC patients also according to the number of affected members. Methods: Among 731 patients, we identified 101 (13.8%) with familial diseases, 79 with 2 affected members (FPTC-2) and 22 with 3 or more affected members (FPTC-3) followed for a mean period of 10 years. Results: FPTC patients had more frequently bilateral tumour ( p = 0.007). No difference was found between the 2 groups for the other evaluated variables. At the time of the first follow-up (1–2 years after initial therapy), FPTC patients had a higher rate of persistent disease. However, at the last follow-up, the clinical outcome was not different between sporadic and familial patients. When the comparison between SPTC and FPTC was performed, according to the number of affected members, a significant trend between the 3 groups was observed for tumour diameter ( p = 0.002) and bilaterality ( p = 0.003), while we did not observe a significant trend for both response to initial therapy ( p = 0.15) and last clinical outcome ( p = 0.22). Conclusions: Our results suggest that, although the clinicopathological features of FPTC may be more aggressive, the long-term outcome is similar between FPTC and SPTC. A possible explanation is that PTC has a favourable prognosis, even when clinical presentation is more aggressive.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Prevalence, clinicopathologic features, and somatic genetic mutation profile in familial versus sporadic nonmedullary thyroid cancer.

          Although hereditary nonmedullary thyroid cancer is recognized as a distinct and isolated familial syndrome, the precise prevalence and genetic basis are poorly understood. Moreover, whether familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) has a more aggressive clinical behavior is controversial. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of FNMTC, and compare the extent of disease and tumor somatic genetic alteration in patients with familial and sporadic papillary thyroid cancer. The main study entry criterion was patients who had a thyroid nodule that required a clinical evaluation with fine-needle aspiration biopsy and or thyroidectomy. A family history questionnaire was used to determine the presence of familial and sporadic thyroid cancer. Thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples and tumor tissue at the time of thyroidectomy were used to test for somatic genetic mutations (BRAF V600E, NRAS, KRAS, NTRK1, RET/PTC1, and RET/PTC3). There were 402 patients with 509 thyroid nodules enrolled in the study. The prevalence of FNMTC was 8.8% in all patients with thyroid cancer and 9.4% in patients with only papillary thyroid cancer. None of the patients with FNMTC had another familial cancer syndrome. There was no significant difference in gender, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and overall stage between sporadic and familial cases of thyroid cancer. Patients with FNMTC were younger at diagnosis than patients with sporadic papillary thyroid cancer (p < 0.002). Seventy-nine of the 504 thyroid nodules had somatic genetic mutations (29 BRAF V600E, 29 NRAS, 8 KRAS, 1 NTRK1, 4 RET/PTC1, and 8 RET/PTC3). There was no significant difference in the number or type of somatic mutations between sporadic and hereditary cases of papillary thyroid cancer. We found a higher prevalence of FNMTC in patients with papillary thyroid cancer than previously reported. Patients with FNMTC present at a younger age. Somatic mutations and extent of disease are similar in sporadic and FNMTC cases.
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            On the prevalence of familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer in multiply affected kindreds.

             N Charkes (2006)
            Clinical and genetic studies of familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) have yielded conflicting results concerning the aggressiveness of the tumors, and uncertainty of their genetic makeup. In most reports of multiply affected families, the composition of the kindreds has favored families of 2 affected members. Using data for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) provided by the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) branch of the National Cancer Institute, and fine-needle aspiration data from Mayo Clinic, I found that the likelihood of 2 cases of sporadic DTC (RR) in a 9-member first-degree family was 1.25% of all DTC families, amounting to 39.4% of 306 multi-hit families reported in the literature. To study the remaining affected families I used the Bernouilli trials model of exact probability. The 60.6% of non-RR, multiply affected families are mostly concentrated in kindreds of 2 to 5 affected members. In 2-hit families, 62%-69% of affected members are sporadic (RR) cases. In families having 3 or more affected members, fewer than 6% have 1 or more sporadic (R) cases, and fewer than 0.15% have 2 or more. In families of 3 to 5 affected members, more than 96% of affected members have the familial (F) trait. Approximately 1 of 338 DTC cases carries the F-trait. Since approximately 40% of multiply affected member first-degree kindreds of DTC, and a significant majority of 2-hit families, are composed of clinically evident, sporadic cases only clinical and genetic investigations of FNMTC should center on families of 3 or more affected members.
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              Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma displays the features of clinical anticipation suggestive of a distinct biological entity.

              Non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC) is mostly sporadic, but familial clustering is described. We aimed to compare the features of patients with sporadic and familial NMTC (FNMTC) patients and to assess whether FNMTC patients with parent-child relationship exhibit the 'anticipation' phenomenon (earlier age at disease onset and increased severity in successive generations). Among 300 NMTCs followed in the Section of Endocrinology (University of Siena, Italy), 34 (11.3%) patients, all with the papillary histotype, (16 kindred), met the criteria of FNMTC. Twenty-seven of them (79.4%) exhibited a parent-child relationship and seven (20.6%) a sibling relationship. These patients were compared with 235 patients with sporadic papillary thyroid cancer (PTCs). To analyze the features of FNMTC of the first and second generations, we cumulated the series of Siena with 32 additional FNMTC patients (15 kindred) from the Department of Endocrinology-Endocrine Oncology, Thessaloniki, Greece. Significant difference between sporadic PTC and FNMTC patients included more frequent tumor multifocality (P=0.001) and worse final outcome in FNMTC patients (P=0.001). Among 47 FNMTC with parent-child relationship, we found an earlier age at disease presentation (P<0.0001), diagnosis (P<0.0001), and disease onset (P=0.04) in the second generation when compared with the first generation. Patients in the second generation were more frequently males (P=0.02); their tumors were more frequently multifocal (P=0.003) and bilateral (P=0.01), had higher rate of lymph node metastases at surgery (P=0.02) and worse outcome (P=0.04) when compared with the first generation. In conclusion, FNMTC displays the features of clinical 'anticipation' with the second generation acquiring the disease at an earlier age and having more advanced disease at presentation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ETJ
                ETJ
                10.1159/issn.2235-0640
                European Thyroid Journal
                S. Karger AG
                2235-0640
                2235-0802
                2020
                July 2020
                28 April 2020
                : 9
                : 4
                : 213-220
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medical, Surgical and Neurological Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
                bDepartment of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
                Author notes
                *Maria Grazia Castagna, MD, PhD, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medical,, Surgical and Neurological Sciences, University of Siena, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Viale Bracci 1, IT–53100 Siena (Italy), mariagrazia.castagna@unisi.it
                Article
                506955 Eur Thyroid J 2020;9:213–220
                10.1159/000506955
                7445652
                32903994
                © 2020 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Clinical Thyroidology / Research Article

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