Blog
About

21
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in White Nile, Sudan

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17,387 sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia, were identified. The Phlebotomus species recorded were Phlebotomus orientalis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus rodhaini and Phlebotomus saevus. P. orientalis was collected in both habitats. The relative abundance of P. orientalis in the woodland habitat was higher than that recorded in the village habitat. In the woodland habitat, there was a notable increase in the relative abundance of P. orientalis during the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2010 compared to 2011. None of the 311 P. orientalis females dissected were infected with Leishmania promastigotes, although relatively high parous rates were recorded in both habitats. Based on the distribution of P. orientalis recorded in this study, this species is the most likely vector of VL in the endemic focus in the White Nile area. Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 31

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The isolation of Leishmania tropica and L. aethiopica from Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Awash Valley, northeastern Ethiopia.

          In a survey of Leishmania infections in phlebotomine sandflies in a highly suspected focus of leishmaniasis in the Awash Valley (northeastern Ethiopia) between January 1994 and August 1997, a total of 3307 females of 11 Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. fantalensis, P. saevus, P. sergenti, P. gemetchi, P. alexandri, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. arabicus, P. martini, and P. rodhaini) were dissected. Promastigotes were detected in 17 females of three species (11 P. saevus, 4 P. sergenti and 2 P. arabicus). Of these, only two P. saevus (one from Upper Awash and one from Middle Awash) and three P. sergenti (from Upper Awash) positives were successfully isolated in culture and were typed by isoenzyme analysis. Four isolates (two each from P. saevus and P. sergenti) were identified as new zymodemes (Z) of L. tropica and one isolate from P. sergenti was typed as a new zymodeme of L. aethiopica. This is the first finding of natural infections of P. saevus and P. arabicus and the first evidence for the former to be a vector of L. tropica. This is also the first time P. sergenti has been implicated in L. tropica transmission in Ethiopia; the isolation of L. aethiopica from a Paraphlebotomus species (P. sergenti) is also a new record. The possible presence of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (L. tropica and L. aethiopica), and wild reservoir host(s) of the parasites, especially rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) in the Upper and Middle Awash Valley remain to be determined.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Phlebotomus sandflies of the Paloich area in the Sudan

             LW Quate,  L Quate (1964)
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Leishmaniasis in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley: II. Entomological observations.

              As part of an epidemiological investigation of visceral leishmaniasis, entomological surveys were conducted in Ziway-Langano, Dimtu-Bilate and Wadjifo-Mirab Abaya areas located in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley between November 1994 and June 1996. A total of 4518 sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected from the study areas using CDC light traps and oiled plastic sheets which were identified to nine species of Phlebotomus and 14 species of Sergentomyia. Most of the Phlebotomus species were from Ziway-Langano area and they included P. martini and P. orientalis, which are the principal vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. Among 339 females of nine Phlebotomus species dissected, natural infections with flagellates were detected in 11 specimens (two P. duboscqi and nine P. rodhami) from Ziway-Langano area, but were different from mammalian Leishmania species by their position in the insect gut, morphology and behaviour in cultures. However, the reasons for the low level of leishmanin skin-test positivity in this portion of the Rift Valley are not immediately clear in view of the rich sand fly fauna and the presence of potential vectors.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                mioc
                Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
                Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
                Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde (Rio de Janeiro )
                1678-8060
                June 2012
                : 107
                : 4
                : 470-475
                Affiliations
                [1 ] National Centre for Research Sudan
                [2 ] University of Gezira Sudan
                [3 ] White Nile State Ministry of Health Sudan
                [4 ] Federal Ministry of Health Sudan
                Article
                S0074-02762012000400005
                10.1590/S0074-02762012000400005
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                PARASITOLOGY
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

                Parasitology, Infectious disease & Microbiology

                VL, Phlebotomus orientalis, White Nile, Sudan

                Comments

                Comment on this article