+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: is it valid for Brazilian adolescents? Translated title: Versão reduzida da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: ela é válida para a população brasileira adolescente?


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents.


          The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change.


          The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99.


          The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population.



          Avaliar a reprodutibilidade interdias, a concordância e a validade do construto da versão reduzida da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 aplicada a adolescentes.


          A amostra foi composta por adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 19 anos, recrutados de escolas e centros esportivos. A validade de construto foi realizada por análise fatorial exploratória, e a confiabilidade foi calculada para cada construto, por meio de coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, erro padrão de medida e mudança mínima detectável.


          A análise fatorial combinando os itens correspondentes a ansiedade e estresse em um único fator, e depressão em um segundo fator apresentou melhor adequação de todos os 21 itens, com cargas fatoriais mais altas em seus respectivos construtos. Os valores de reprodutibilidade para a depressão foram coeficiente de correlação intraclasse com 0,86, erros padrão de medida com 0,80 e mudança mínima detectável com 2,22 e, para a ansiedade/estresse, foram coeficiente de correlação intraclasse com 0,82, erro padrão de medida com 1,80 e mudança mínima detectável com 4,99.


          A versão reduzida da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 apresentou excelentes valores de confiabilidade e também uma forte consistência interna. O modelo de dois fatores com a condensação dos construtos ansiedade e estresse em um único fator foi o mais aceitável para a população adolescente.

          Related collections

          Most cited references48

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21): further examination of dimensions, scale reliability, and correlates.

          We conducted two studies to examine the dimensions, internal consistency reliability estimates, and potential correlates of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Participants in Study 1 included 887 undergraduate students (363 men and 524 women, aged 18 to 35 years; mean [M] age = 19.46, standard deviation [SD] = 2.17) recruited from two public universities to assess the specificity of the individual DASS-21 items and to evaluate estimates of internal consistency reliability. Participants in a follow-up study (Study 2) included 410 students (168 men and 242 women, aged 18 to 47 years; M age = 19.65, SD = 2.88) recruited from the same universities to further assess factorial validity and to evaluate potential correlates of the original DASS-21 total and scale scores. Item bifactor and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a general factor accounted for the greatest proportion of common variance in the DASS-21 item scores (Study 1). In Study 2, the fit statistics showed good fit for the bifactor model. In addition, the DASS-21 total scale score correlated more highly with scores on a measure of mixed depression and anxiety than with scores on the proposed specific scales of depression or anxiety. Coefficient omega estimates for the DASS-21 scale scores were good. Further investigations of the bifactor structure and psychometric properties of the DASS-21, specifically its incremental and discriminant validity, using known clinical groups are needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the depression, anxiety, and stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a nonclinical sample of U.S. adults.

            Health care professionals are coming under increased pressure to empirically monitor patient outcomes across settings as a means of improving clinical practice. Within the psychiatric and primary care communities, many have begun utilizing brief psychometric measures of psychological functioning to accomplish these goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21-item version (DASS-21), and contribute normative data to facilitate interpretation using a sample of U.S. adults (N = 503). Item-scale convergence was generally supported, although assumptions of item-scale divergence were not met. Only 86%, 50%, and 43% of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress items, respectively, correlated significantly greater with their hypothesized scales than other scales. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all scales and comparable to existing research (αs = .91, .80, and .84 for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, respectively). Scale-level correlations were greater than what has been reported elsewhere (range of rs = .68 to .73), and principal components analysis supported the extraction of only one component accounting for 47% of the item-level variance. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) favored a three-factor structure when compared to a one-factor model. The implications for the health care professions are discussed.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): factor structure in a young adolescent sample.

              This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students (Mean age=13.62 years, Min=11.83, Max=15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. A model consistent with the factor structure of the adult DASS, with correlated error terms, provided good fit to the data. However, correlations among the factors were very high. A 'quadripartite' model involving a common 'Negative Affect' factor as well as the three specific factors of Depression, Anxiety and Tension/Stress was tested to explain these correlations and was supported by the data. This model suggests that the core symptoms of Depression and Anxiety are similar in adults and adolescents, but the conceptualisation and assessment of Tension/Stress in adolescents needs further refinement. Copyright (c) 2009 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Einstein (Sao Paulo)
                Einstein (Sao Paulo)
                Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein
                Oct-Dec 2016
                Oct-Dec 2016
                : 14
                : 4
                : 486-493
                [1 ] Universidade de Pernambuco, Petrolina, PE, Brazil.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Hítalo Andrade da Silva – Rodovia BR 203, km 2, s/n – Vila Eduardo – Zip code: 56328-903 – Petrolina, PE, Brazil – Phone: (55 87) 3866-6496 – E-mail: hitalo_andrade@ 123456yahoo.com.br

                Conflict of interest: none.


                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 9 May 2016
                : 23 August 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 8, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 8
                Original Article

                affective symptoms,surveys and questionnaires,reproducibility of results,adolescent,validation studies,psychiatric status rating scales


                Comment on this article


                Similar content15

                Cited by29

                Most referenced authors278