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      A review on commercial-scale high-value products that can be produced alongside cellulosic ethanol

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          Abstract

          The demand for fossil derivate fuels and chemicals has increased, augmenting concerns on climate change, global economic stability, and sustainability on fossil resources. Therefore, the production of fuels and chemicals from alternative and renewable resources has attracted considerable and growing attention. Ethanol is a promising biofuel that can reduce the consumption of gasoline in the transportation sector and related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock to produce bioethanol (cellulosic ethanol) because of its abundance and low cost. Since the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol is complex and expensive, the cellulosic ethanol price cannot compete with those of the fossil derivate fuels. A promising strategy to lower the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is developing a biorefinery which produces ethanol and other high-value chemicals from lignocellulose. The selection of such chemicals is difficult because there are hundreds of products that can be produced from lignocellulose. Multiple reviews and reports have described a small group of lignocellulose derivate compounds that have the potential to be commercialized. Some of these products are in the bench scale and require extensive research and time before they can be industrially produced. This review examines chemicals and materials with a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of at least 8, which have reached a commercial scale and could be shortly or immediately integrated into a cellulosic ethanol process.

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          Technology development for the production of biobased products from biorefinery carbohydrates—the US Department of Energy’s “Top 10” revisited

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            Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

            N. Mosier (2005)
            Cellulosic plant material represents an as-of-yet untapped source of fermentable sugars for significant industrial use. Many physio-chemical structural and compositional factors hinder the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose present in lignocellulosic biomass. The goal of any pretreatment technology is to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to hydrolysis in order to improve the rate of enzyme hydrolysis and increase yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose or hemicellulose. These methods cause physical and/or chemical changes in the plant biomass in order to achieve this result. Experimental investigation of physical changes and chemical reactions that occur during pretreatment is required for the development of effective and mechanistic models that can be used for the rational design of pretreatment processes. Furthermore, pretreatment processing conditions must be tailored to the specific chemical and structural composition of the various, and variable, sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This paper reviews process parameters and their fundamental modes of action for promising pretreatment methods.
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              Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                valdeir.arantes@usp.br
                Journal
                Biotechnol Biofuels
                Biotechnol Biofuels
                Biotechnology for Biofuels
                BioMed Central (London )
                1754-6834
                8 October 2019
                8 October 2019
                2019
                : 12
                : 240
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Department of Biotechnology, Lorena School of Engineering, , University of Sao Paulo, ; Estrada Municipal do Campinho, Lorena, SP CEP 12602-810 Brazil
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9565-1006
                Article
                1529
                10.1186/s13068-019-1529-1
                6781352
                31624502
                a5b32cc9-6d1b-4512-b7ab-e5170732c8b2
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 12 March 2019
                : 17 July 2019
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001807, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo;
                Award ID: 15/02862-5
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002322, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico;
                Award ID: 308715/2015-2
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Biotechnology
                cellulosic ethanol,bioproducts,commercial production,biorefinery,biofuel,lignocellulose,bio-based chemicals

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