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      Martial Arts-Based Therapy Reduces Pain and Distress Among Children with Chronic Health Conditions and Their Siblings

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Test whether a martial arts-based therapy, Kids Kicking Cancer (KKC), can reduce pain and emotional distress in children with cancer, other chronic health conditions (e.g., sickle cell), and healthy siblings.

          Methods

          This study surveyed children’s pain and distress levels immediately before and after a 1-hr in-person KKC class. Eligible participants were enrolled in standard KKC classes, were diagnosed with a chronic health condition (e.g., cancer, sickle cell) or were the sibling of a child diagnosed and were between the ages of 5–17 years (inclusive). Children reported on their pain and distress using Likert-style scales (Coloured Analog Scale and modified FACES scale, respectively). Friedman test was used to test for overall changes in pain and distress, and within subgroups. Age and sex effects were evaluated using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Additional Yes/No questions were administered regarding KKC satisfaction and use of techniques.

          Results

          Fifty-nine youth (19 cancer patients, 17 non-cancer patients, 23 siblings; 5–17 yrs, 26 females) completed this study. Overall, there was a significant reduction in pain ( p = 0.033) and emotional distress ( p < 0.001) after a 1-hr class, with 50% and 89% of youth reporting a reduction in pain and distress, respectively. On average, pain levels remained within the mild/moderate range on average (i.e., pre vs. post levels; pre: M = 1.67, post: M = 1.33) and emotional distress went from mild/moderate to none/mild distress, on average (pre: M = 1.92, post: M = 1.08). Youth with higher pre-class pain and distress reported greater reductions ( p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The reduction in pain appeared to be most pronounced with cancer and non-cancer patients. In contrast, the reduction in distress appeared to be most pronounced among healthy siblings. However, overall, reductions in pain and distress did not significantly differ among subgroups (i.e., cancer patients, non-cancer patients, siblings), and change in pain and distress was not associated with age or sex. Ninety-six percent of youth would recommend KKC to others and 81% reported using KKC techniques (e.g., the Breath Brake TM or other martial arts techniques) outside of class, such as at home.

          Conclusion

          Results support the more widespread application of KKC as a psychosocial intervention for reducing pain and distress in various pediatric populations.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Neuronal Plasticity: Increasing the Gain in Pain

           C J Woolf (2000)
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            Pain among children and adolescents: restrictions in daily living and triggering factors.

            Pain among children and adolescents has been identified as an important public health problem. Most studies evaluating recurrent or chronic pain conditions among children have been limited to descriptions of pain intensity and duration. The effects of pain states and their impact on daily living have rarely been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived pain on the daily lives and activities of children and adolescents. In addition, we sought to delineate self-perceived triggers of pain among children and adolescents. In this study, we (1) document the 3-month prevalence of painful conditions among children and adolescents, (2) delineate their features (location, intensity, frequency, and duration), (3) describe their consequences (restrictions and health care utilization), and (4) elucidate factors that contribute to the occurrence of pain episodes among young subjects. The study was conducted in 1 elementary school and 2 secondary schools in the district of Ostholstein, Germany. Children and adolescents, as well as their parents/guardians, were contacted through their school administrators. The teachers distributed an information leaflet, explaining the conduct and aim of the study, to the parents a few days before the official enrollment of the youths in the study. Parents of children in grades 1 to 4 of elementary school were asked to complete the pain questionnaire for their children at home, whereas children from grade 5 upward completed the questionnaire on their own during class, under the supervision of their teachers. The response rate was 80.3%. As previously stated, chronic pain was defined as any prolonged pain that lasted a minimum of 3 months or any pain that recurred throughout a minimal period of 3 months. The children and adolescents were surveyed with the Luebeck Pain-Screening Questionnaire, which was specifically designed for an epidemiologic study of the characteristics and consequences of pain among children and adolescents. The questionnaire evaluates the prevalence of pain in the preceding 3 months. The body area, frequency, intensity, and duration of pain are addressed by the questionnaire. In addition, the questionnaire inquires about the private and public consequences of pain among young subjects. Specifically, the questionnaire aims to delineate the self-perceived factors for the development and maintenance of pain and the impact of these conditions on daily life. Of the 749 children and adolescents, 622 (83%) had experienced pain during the preceding 3 months. A total of 30.8% of the children and adolescents stated that the pain had been present for >6 months. Headache (60.5%), abdominal pain (43.3%), limb pain (33.6%), and back pain (30.2) were the most prevalent pain types among the respondents. Children and adolescents with pain reported that their pain caused the following sequelae: sleep problems (53.6%), inability to pursue hobbies (53.3%), eating problems (51.1%), school absence (48.8%), and inability to meet friends (46.7%). The prevalence of restrictions in daily living attributable to pain increased with age. A total of 50.9% of children and adolescents with pain sought professional help for their conditions, and 51.5% reported the use of pain medications. The prevalence of doctor visits and medication use increased with age. Weather conditions (33%), illness (30.7%), and physical exertion (21.9%) were the most frequent self-perceived triggers for pain noted by the respondents. A total of 30.4% of study participants registered headache as the most bothersome pain, whereas 12.3% cited abdominal pain, 10.7% pain in the extremities, 8.9% back pain, and 3.9% sore throat as being most bothersome. A total of 35.2% of children and adolescents reported pain episodes occurring > or =1 time per week or even more often. Health care utilization because of pain differed among children and adolescents according to the location of pain. Children and adolescents with back pain (56.7%), limb pain (55.0%), and abdominal pain (53.3%) visited a doctor more often than did those with headache (32.5%). In contrast, children and adolescents with headache (59.2%) reported taking medication because of pain more often than did those with back pain (16.4%), limb pain (22.5%), and abdominal pain (38.0%). The prevalence of self-reported medication use and doctor visits because of pain increased significantly with age (chi2 test). The prevalence of self-reported medication use was significantly higher among girls than among boys of the same age, except between the ages of 4 and 9 years (chi2 test). The prevalence of restrictions in daily activities varied among children and adolescents with different pain locations; 51.1% of children and adolescents with abdominal pain and 43.0% with headache but only 19.4% with back pain reported having been absent from school because of pain. The prevalence of restrictions attributable to pain was significantly higher among girls than among boys of the same age, except between the ages of 4 and 9 years (chi2 test). The self-reported triggers for pain varied between girls and boys. Girls stated more often than boys that their pain was triggered by weather conditions (39% vs 25%), illness (eg, common cold or injury) (35.9% vs 23.9%), anger/disputes (20.9% vs 11.9%), family conditions (12.1% vs 5.2%), and sadness (11.9% vs 3.4%). In contrast, boys stated more often than girls that their pain was triggered by physical exertion (28% vs 17.2%). We used a logistic regression model to predict the likelihood of a child paying a visit to the doctor and/or using pain medication. Health care utilization was predicted by increasing age, greater intensity of pain, and longer duration of pain but not by the frequency of pain. We used a logistic regression model to predict restrictions in daily activities. Only the intensity of pain was predictive of the degree of restrictions in daily life attributable to pain; the duration of pain and the frequency of pain episodes had no bearing on the degree to which the daily lives of the children were restricted because of pain. More than two thirds of the respondents reported restrictions in daily living activities attributable to pain. However, 30 to 40% of children and adolescents with pain reported moderate effects of their pain on school attendance, participation in hobbies, maintenance of social contacts, appetite, and sleep, as well as increased utilization of health services because of their pain. Restrictions in daily activities in general and health care utilization because of pain increased with age. Girls > or =10 years of age reported more restrictions in daily living and used more medications for their pain than did boys of the same age. We found gender-specific differences in self-perceived triggers for pain. Pain intensity was the most robust variable for predicting functional impairment in > or =1 areas of daily life. Increasing age of the child and increasing intensity and duration of pain had effects in predicting health care utilization (visiting a doctor and/or taking medication), whereas restrictions in daily activities were predicted only by the intensity of pain. Our results underscore the relevance of pediatric pain for public health policy. Additional studies are necessary and may enhance our knowledge about pediatric pain, to enable parents, teachers, and health care professionals to assist young people with pain management, allowing the young people to intervene positively in their conditions before they become recurrent or persistent.
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              Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication--Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A).

              To present estimates of the lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders with and without severe impairment, their comorbidity across broad classes of disorder, and their sociodemographic correlates. The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years in the continental United States. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed using a modified version of the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Anxiety disorders were the most common condition (31.9%), followed by behavior disorders (19.1%), mood disorders (14.3%), and substance use disorders (11.4%), with approximately 40% of participants with one class of disorder also meeting criteria for another class of lifetime disorder. The overall prevalence of disorders with severe impairment and/or distress was 22.2% (11.2% with mood disorders, 8.3% with anxiety disorders, and 9.6% behavior disorders). The median age of onset for disorder classes was earliest for anxiety (6 years), followed by 11 years for behavior, 13 years for mood, and 15 years for substance use disorders. These findings provide the first prevalence data on a broad range of mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Approximately one in every four to five youth in the U.S. meets criteria for a mental disorder with severe impairment across their lifetime. The likelihood that common mental disorders in adults first emerge in childhood and adolescence highlights the need for a transition from the common focus on treatment of U.S. youth to that of prevention and early intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                jpr
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                29 December 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 3467-3478
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Wayne State University , Detroit, MI, USA
                [2 ]Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute, Wayne State University , Detroit, MI, USA
                [3 ]Population Studies and Disparities Research Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute , Detroit, MI, USA
                [4 ]Department of Pharmacy Practice, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University , Detroit, MI, USA
                [5 ]Kids Kicking Cancer , Southfield, MI, USA
                [6 ]Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Wayne State University , Detroit, MI, USA
                [7 ]Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University , Detroit, MI, USA
                [8 ]Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University , Detroit, MI, USA
                [9 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University , Detroit, MI, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hilary A Marusak Tel +1 313-577-1278Fax +1 313-577-6188 Email hmarusak@med.wayne.edu
                Article
                283364
                10.2147/JPR.S283364
                7778380
                © 2020 Marusak et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 55, Pages: 12
                Funding
                Funded by: St. Baldrick’s Foundation;
                This work was supported by a grant from the St. Baldrick’s Foundation (523497) to HM. HM is supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (K01 MH119241). The grant providers had no influence on study design, the collection, analyses and interpretation of data, report writing nor decision of submission for publication.
                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                meditation, mindfulness, oncology, psychosocial, sickle cell, leukemia

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