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      Comparison of Skin Permeation and Putative Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Commercially Available Topical Products Containing Ibuprofen and Diclofenac

      1

      Journal of Pain Research

      Dove

      cutaneous, NSAID, in vitro study, COX-2 inhibition, index of topical anti-inflammatory activity, ITAA

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The therapeutic effect of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) depends on the drug’s ability to penetrate and permeate the skin and subsequently inhibit cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoforms responsible for pain and inflammation. Most commercially available topical NSAID formulations are clinically effective, but direct comparisons of anti-inflammatory activity including both skin absorption and inhibitory potency are lacking. This study examined the skin absorption of representative commercially available topical diclofenac- and ibuprofen-based formulations along with published potency values to determine formulations with superior anti-inflammatory activity.

          Materials and Methods

          Cumulative absorption and flux profiles of 12 commercially available topical NSAIDs (6 diclofenac-based and 6 ibuprofen-based) were evaluated in vitro using human skin in static Franz diffusion cells. Each formulation was applied as a single dose. In vitro permeation parameters and published COX-2 inhibition values were used to calculate a modified index of topical anti-inflammatory activity (mITAA).

          Results

          All diclofenac and ibuprofen formulations permeated human skin in vitro. The rate and degree of absorption differed between diclofenac and ibuprofen formulations and between formulations of the same drug. NSAID concentration within a product was not solely responsible for the permeation flux or degree of absorption. Ibuprofen formulations permeated the skin more rapidly and to a greater degree than diclofenac, but calculated mITAAs were higher for diclofenac.

          Conclusion

          Diclofenac exhibited superior anti-inflammatory activity as measured by the index. Differences beyond drug concentration, including excipients, drug salt form, and dosage form, contribute to differences in absorption and thus in anti-inflammatory activity. Both absorption and COX-2 inhibition potency are important for anti-inflammatory activity, but their priority depends upon the products being compared—with the same NSAID, absorption determines superiority; with different NSAIDs, superiority is determined by the balance between absorption and COX-2 potency. These findings should be considered when selecting a topical NSAID for treating patient pain and inflammation.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Natural skin surface pH is on average below 5, which is beneficial for its resident flora.

          Variable skin pH values are being reported in literature, all in the acidic range but with a broad range from pH 4.0 to 7.0. In a multicentre study (N = 330), we have assessed the skin surface pH of the volar forearm before and after refraining from showering and cosmetic product application for 24 h. The average pH dropped from 5.12 +/- 0.56 to 4.93 +/- 0.45. On the basis of this pH drop, it is estimated that the 'natural' skin surface pH is on average 4.7, i.e. below 5. This is in line with existing literature, where a relatively large number of reports (c. 50%) actually describes pH values below 5.0; this is in contrast to the general assumption, that skin surface pH is on average between 5.0 and 6.0. Not only prior use of cosmetic products, especially soaps, have profound influence on skin surface pH, but the use of plain tap water, in Europe with a pH value generally around 8.0, will increase skin pH up to 6 h after application before returning to its 'natural' value of on average below 5.0. It is demonstrated that skin with pH values below 5.0 is in a better condition than skin with pH values above 5.0, as shown by measuring the biophysical parameters of barrier function, moisturization and scaling. The effect of pH on adhesion of resident skin microflora was also assessed; an acid skin pH (4-4.5) keeps the resident bacterial flora attached to the skin, whereas an alkaline pH (8-9) promotes the dispersal from the skin.
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            Diclofenac: an update on its mechanism of action and safety profile.

             Tong Gan (2010)
            Diclofenac is a proven, commonly prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties, and has been shown to be effective in treating a variety of acute and chronic pain and inflammatory conditions. As with all NSAIDs, diclofenac exerts its action via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with relative equipotency. However, extensive research shows the pharmacologic activity of diclofenac goes beyond COX inhibition, and includes multimodal and, in some instances, novel mechanisms of action (MOA). Literature retrieval was performed through PubMed/MEDLINE (through May 2009) using combinations of the terms diclofenac, NSAID, mechanism of action, COX-1, COX-2, and pharmacology. Reference citations resulting from publications identified in the literature search were reviewed when appropriate. This article reviews the established, putative, and emerging MOAs of diclofenac; compares the drug's pharmacologic and pharmacodynamic properties with other NSAIDs to delineate its potentially unique qualities; hypothesizes why it has been chosen for further recent formulation enhancement; and evaluates the potential effect of its MOA characteristics on safety. Research suggests diclofenac can inhibit the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor, affect arachidonic acid release and uptake, inhibit lipoxygenase enzymes, and activate the nitric oxide-cGMP antinociceptive pathway. Other novel MOAs may include the inhibition of substrate P, inhibition of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), blockage of acid-sensing ion channels, alteration of interleukin-6 production, and inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hyperalgesia. The review was not designed to compare MOAs of diclofenac with other NSAIDs. Additionally, as the highlighted putative and emerging MOAs do not have clinical data to demonstrate that these models are correct, further research is necessary to ascertain if the proposed pathways will translate into clinical benefits. The diversity in diclofenac's MOA may suggest the potential for a relatively more favorable profile compared with other NSAIDs.
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              Advances in NSAID Development: Evolution of Diclofenac Products Using Pharmaceutical Technology

              Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the phenylacetic acid class with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. Contrary to the action of many traditional NSAIDs, diclofenac inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme with greater potency than it does COX-1. Similar to other NSAIDs, diclofenac is associated with serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse effects. Since its introduction in 1973, a number of different diclofenac-containing drug products have been developed with the goal of improving efficacy, tolerability, and patient convenience. Delayed- and extended-release forms of diclofenac sodium were initially developed with the goal of improving the safety profile of diclofenac and providing convenient, once-daily dosing for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. New drug products consisting of diclofenac potassium salt were associated with faster absorption and rapid onset of pain relief. These include diclofenac potassium immediate-release tablets, diclofenac potassium liquid-filled soft gel capsules, and diclofenac potassium powder for oral solution. The advent of topical formulations of diclofenac enabled local treatment of pain and inflammation while minimizing systemic absorption of diclofenac. SoluMatrix diclofenac, consisting of submicron particles of diclofenac free acid and a proprietary combination of excipients, was developed to provide analgesic efficacy at reduced doses associated with lower systemic absorption. This review illustrates how pharmaceutical technology has been used to modify the pharmacokinetic properties of diclofenac, leading to the creation of novel drug products with improved clinical utility.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                jpr
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                04 November 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 2805-2814
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare S.A , Nyon 1260, Switzerland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Julie Pradal GSK Consumer Healthcare S.A ., Route De l’Etraz 2, Nyon1260, SwitzerlandTel +41 22 567 26 72 Email julie.x.pradal@gsk.com
                Article
                262390
                10.2147/JPR.S262390
                7650811
                © 2020 Pradal.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 32, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

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