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      Occurrence, biology, natural enemies and management of Tuta absoluta in Africa

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          The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating invasive pest of tomato crops in several areas around the world including Africa. Here, we comprehensively review and discuss the relevant scientific knowledge on its occurrence, biological and ecological aspects, fortuitous insect natural enemies, and potential advantages and constraints of pest management scenarios adopted against this pest in tomato crops in both Northern and Sub-Saharan Africa. We conclude the manuscript with a comprehensive research agenda providing future priorities towards sustainable control of this important tomato pest.

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          Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, biotic exchange, and elevated carbon dioxide concentration. For freshwater ecosystems, biotic exchange is much more important. Mediterranean climate and grassland ecosystems likely will experience the greatest proportional change in biodiversity because of the substantial influence of all drivers of biodiversity change. Northern temperate ecosystems are estimated to experience the least biodiversity change because major land-use change has already occurred. Plausible changes in biodiversity in other biomes depend on interactions among the causes of biodiversity change. These interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change.
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                Author and article information

                Entomologia Generalis
                Journal of General and Applied Entomology - Zeitschrift für Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie
                Schweizerbart Science Publishers (Stuttgart, Germany http://www.schweizerbart.com/ mail@ 123456schweizerbart.de )
                19 December 2018
                : 38
                : 2
                : 83-112
                1 Université de Carthage, Institut Supérieur des Études Préparatoires en Biologie-Géologie (ISEP-BG), Section des Sciences Biologiques, 2036 La Soukra, Tunis, Tunisia 2 University of Catania, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 95123 Catania, Italy 3 CIRAD, UPR AIDA, Centre commun ISRA-IRD, Dakar, Senegal 4 CIRAD, UPR HortSys, Centre commun ISRA-IRD, Dakar, Senegal 5 Université de Montpellier, CIRAD, Montpellier, France 6 Université de Carthage, Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire d’Entomologie-Acarologie, 1082 Cité Mahrajène, Tunis, Tunisia 7 Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG 36570-900, Brazil 8 International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), PO Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya 9 Agricultural Research Council (ARC) – Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X134, Queenswood 0121, South Africa 10 National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), PMB 5432, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria 11 International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), 08 BP 0932 -Trip Postal Cotonou, Benin 12 CABI, 2800 Delémont, Switzerland 13 INRA (French National Institute for Agricultural Research), Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, UMR 1355-7254, Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, Sophia Antipolis, France # These authors contributed equally
                Author notes

                * Corresponding author: antonio.biondi@ 123456unict.it

                90159 0749
                Copyright © 2018 E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 70176 Stuttgart, Germany
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 30
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