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      Magnesium and Vascular Changes in Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Many factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including changes in intracellular concentrations of calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. There is a significant inverse correlation between serum magnesium and incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Magnesium is a mineral with important functions in the body such as antiarrhythmic effect, actions in vascular tone, contractility, glucose metabolism, and insulin homeostasis. In addition, lower concentrations of magnesium are associated with oxidative stress, proinflammatory state, endothelial dysfunction, platelet aggregation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. The conflicting results of studies evaluating the effects of magnesium supplements on blood pressure and other cardiovascular outcomes indicate that the action of magnesium in the vascular system is present but not yet established. Therefore, this mineral supplementation is not indicated as part of antihypertensive treatment, and further studies are needed to better clarify the role of magnesium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Reactive oxygen species in vascular biology: implications in hypertension.

           E Schiffrin,  R Touyz (2004)
          Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide (*O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl anion (OH-), and reactive nitrogen species, such as nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-), are biologically important O2 derivatives that are increasingly recognized to be important in vascular biology through their oxidation/reduction (redox) potential. All vascular cell types (endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and adventitial fibroblasts) produce ROS, primarily via cell membrane-associated NAD(P)H oxidase. Reactive oxygen species regulate vascular function by modulating cell growth, apoptosis/anoikis, migration, inflammation, secretion, and extracellular matrix protein production. An imbalance in redox state where pro-oxidants overwhelm anti-oxidant capacity results in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and associated oxidative damage are mediators of vascular injury and inflammation in many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. Increased generation of ROS has been demonstrated in experimental and human hypertension. Anti-oxidants and agents that interrupt NAD(P)H oxidase-driven *O2- production regress vascular remodeling, improve endothelial function, reduce inflammation, and decrease blood pressure in hypertensive models. This experimental evidence has evoked considerable interest because of the possibilities that therapies targeted against reactive oxygen intermediates, by decreasing generation of ROS and/or by increasing availability of antioxidants, may be useful in minimizing vascular injury and hypertensive end organ damage. The present chapter focuses on the importance of ROS in vascular biology and discusses the role of oxidative stress in vascular damage in hypertension.
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            Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults.

            Studies suggest that magnesium intake may be inversely related to risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus and that higher intake of magnesium may decrease blood triglycerides and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, the longitudinal association of magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. We prospectively examined the relations between magnesium intake and incident metabolic syndrome and its components among 4637 Americans, aged 18 to 30 years, who were free from metabolic syndrome and diabetes at baseline. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Diet was assessed by an interviewer-administered quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and magnesium intake was derived from the nutrient database developed by the Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center. During the 15 years of follow-up, 608 incident cases of the metabolic syndrome were identified. Magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary variables and baseline status of each component of the metabolic syndrome. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of magnesium intake, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of metabolic syndrome for participants in the highest quartile was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.91; P for trend <0.01). The inverse associations were not materially modified by gender and race. Magnesium intake was also inversely related to individual component of the metabolic syndrome and fasting insulin levels. Our findings suggest that young adults with higher magnesium intake have lower risk of development of metabolic syndrome.
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              Magnesium and the inflammatory response: potential physiopathological implications.

              The purpose of this review is to summarize experimental findings showing that magnesium modulates cellular events involved in inflammation. Experimental magnesium deficiency in the rat induces after a few days a clinical inflammatory syndrome characterized by leukocyte and macrophage activation, release of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, excessive production of free radicals. Increase in extracellular magnesium concentration, decreases inflammatory response while reduction in the extracellular magnesium results in cell activation. Because magnesium acts as a natural calcium antagonist, the molecular basis for inflammatory response is probably the result of modulation of intracellular calcium concentration. The priming of phagocytic cells, the opening calcium channel and activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) have been considered as potential mechanisms. Moreover, magnesium deficiency induces a systemic stress response by activation of neuro endocrinological pathways. As nervous and immune systems interact bidirectionally, the roles of neuromediators have also been considered. Magnesium deficiency contributes to an exaggerated response to immune stress and oxidative stress is the consequence of the inflammatory response. Inflammation contributes to the pro-atherogenic changes in lipoprotein metabolism, endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, hypertension and explains the aggravating effect of magnesium deficiency on the development of metabolic syndrome. Further studies are still needed to assess more accurately the role of magnesium in immune response in humans, but these experimental findings in animal models suggest that inflammation is the missing link to explain the role of magnesium in many pathological conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Hypertens
                IJHT
                International Journal of Hypertension
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-0384
                2090-0392
                2012
                29 February 2012
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                Department of Clinical Medicine, University Hospital Pedro Ernesto, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 77 Sala 329, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Wille Oigman

                Article
                10.1155/2012/754250
                3299255
                22518291
                Copyright © 2012 Ana Rosa Cunha et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine

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