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      Biosensors Based on Advanced Sulfur-Containing Nanomaterials

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          In recent years, sulfur-containing nanomaterials and their derivatives/composites have attracted much attention because of their important role in the field of biosensor, biolabeling, drug delivery and diagnostic imaging technology, which inspires us to compile this review. To focus on the relationships between advanced biomaterials and biosensors, this review describes the applications of various types of sulfur-containing nanomaterials in biosensors. We bring two types of sulfur-containing nanomaterials including metallic sulfide nanomaterials and sulfur-containing quantum dots, to discuss and summarize the possibility and application as biosensors based on the sulfur-containing nanomaterials. Finally, future perspective and challenges of biosensors based on sulfur-containing nanomaterials are briefly rendered.

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          Most cited references 160

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          A general method for the large-scale synthesis of uniform ultrathin metal sulphide nanocrystals.

          Ultrathin metal sulphide nanomaterials exhibit many unique properties, and are thus attractive materials for numerous applications. However, the high-yield, large-scale synthesis of well-defined ultrathin metal sulphide nanostructures by a general and facile wet-chemical method is yet to be realized. Here we report a universal soft colloidal templating strategy for the synthesis of high-quality ultrathin metal sulphide nanocrystals, that is 3.2 nm-thick hexagonal CuS nanosheets, 1.8 nm-diameter hexagonal ZnS nanowires, 1.2 nm-diameter orthorhombic Bi(2)S(3) nanowires and 1.8 nm-diameter orthorhombic Sb(2)S(3) nanowires. As a proof of concept, the ultrathin CuS nanosheets are used to fabricate an electrode for a lithium-ion battery, which exhibits a large capacity and good cycling stability, even after 360 cycles. Furthermore, high-yield, gram-scale production of these ultrathin metal sulphide nanomaterials has been achieved (~100%, without size-sorting process). Our method could be broadly applicable for the high-yield production of novel ultrathin nanostructures with great promise for various applications.
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            Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals.

            We report on the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals of PbS, ZnS, CdS, and MnS through a facile and inexpensive synthetic process. Metal-oleylamine complexes, which were obtained from the reaction of metal chloride and oleylamine, were mixed with sulfur. The reaction mixture was heated under appropriate experimental conditions to produce metal sulfide nanocrystals. Uniform cube-shaped PbS nanocrystals with particle sizes of 6, 8, 9, and 13 nm were synthesized. The particle size was controlled by changing the relative amount of PbCl(2) and sulfur. Uniform 11 nm sized spherical ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized from the reaction of zinc chloride and sulfur, followed by one cycle of size-selective precipitation. CdS nanocrystals that consist of rods, bipods, and tripods were synthesized from a reaction mixture containing a 1:6 molar ratio of cadmium to sulfur. Spherical CdS nanocrystals (5.1 nm sized) were obtained from a reaction mixture with a cadmium to sulfur molar ratio of 2:1. MnS nanocrystals with various sizes and shapes were synthesized from the reaction of MnCl(2) and sulfur in oleylamine. Rod-shaped MnS nanocrystals with an average size of 20 nm (thickness) x 37 nm (length) were synthesized from a 1:1 molar ratio of MnCl(2) and sulfur at 240 degrees C. Novel bullet-shaped MnS nanocrystals with an average size of 17 nm (thickness) x 44 nm (length) were synthesized from the reaction of 4 mmol of MnCl(2) and 2 mmol of sulfur at 280 degrees C for 2 h. Shorter bullet-shaped MnS nanocrystals were synthesized from a 3:1 molar ratio of MnCl(2) and sulfur. Hexagon-shaped MnS nanocrystals were also obtained. All of the synthesized nanocrystals were highly crystalline.
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              New Generation Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for Biophotonics and Nanomedicine.

              This review summarizes recent progress in the design and applications of cadmium-free quantum dots (Cd-free QDs), with an emphasis on their role in biophotonics and nanomedicine. We first present the features of Cd-free QDs and describe the physics and emergent optical properties of various types of Cd-free QDs whose applications are discussed in subsequent sections. Selected specific QD systems are introduced, followed by the preparation of these Cd-free QDs in a form useful for biological applications, including recent advances in achieving high photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) and tunability of emission color. Next, we summarize biophotonic applications of Cd-free QDs in optical imaging, photoacoustic imaging, sensing, optical tracking, and photothermal therapy. Research advances in the use of Cd-free QDs for nanomedicine applications are discussed, including drug/gene delivery, protein/peptide delivery, image-guided surgery, diagnostics, and medical devices. The review then considers the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Cd-free QDs and summarizes current studies on the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of Cd-free QDs. Finally, we provide perspectives on the overall current status, challenges, and future directions in this field.

                Author and article information

                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                19 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 20
                : 12
                State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Biomedical Engineering Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China; li_chunmei@ (C.L.); yihanwangxynu@ (Y.W.); sungi@ (H.J.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: xuewang@
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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