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      Phosphorus and potassium fertilization increase common bean grain yield in Mozambique Translated title: Adubação fosfatada e potássica elevam a produtividade de grãos do feijoeiro em Moçambique

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT There is little information about common bean fertilization in African Savannas. The objectives of this study were as follows: i) to evaluate the common bean yield potential in the environmental conditions of Lichinga, Niassa, Mozambique, and ii) to determine the common bean response to phosphorus and potassium fertilization applied together in order to verify whether the interpretation of soil analysis for the Brazilian Cerrado could be adopted for Savanna soils in Mozambique. The experimental design was a randomized block design in a 5 x 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of a combination of phosphorus doses (0, 35, 70, 140 and 280 kg ha-1 of P2O5), potassium doses (0, 50 100 and 200 kg ha-1 of K2O), and different growing seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014). The field rainfed experiments were conducted in Lichinga city, province of Niassa. Common bean crops presented high productivity potential in rainfed systems in the environmental conditions of Lichinga, Niassa, Mozambique, reaching grain yields of up to 3,600 kg ha-1 depending on the rates of fertilization with phosphorus and potassium. Common beans responded to phosphorus and potassium fertilization despite high contents of these nutrients in the soil, according to the interpretation of soil analysis for the Brazilian Cerrado. Maximum grain yield in the average of two growing seasons was estimated to occur for 239 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 141 kg ha-1 of K2O, indicating that further calibration studies for P and K are required for this specific region of Mozambique.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO Há pouca informação sobre sua fertilização nas Savanas Africanas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: i) avaliar o potencial de produtividade de feijão nas condições ambientais de Lichinga, Niassa, Moçambique e ii) determinar as curvas de resposta da cultura à adubação com fósforo e potássio, aplicados juntos, a fim de verificar se a interpretação da análise de solos do Cerrado brasileiro poderia ser adotada para os solos do Cerrado de Moçambique. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 4 x 2. Os tratamentos foram formados pela combinação de doses de fósforo (0, 35, 70, 140 e 280 kg ha-1 de P2O5) com doses de potássio (0, 50 100 e 200 kg ha-1 de K2O) e safras agrícolas (2012/13 e 2013/14). Os experimentos de sequeiro a campo foram realizados na cidade de Lichinga, província de Niassa. A cultura de feijão-comum apresentou alto potencial de produtividade em sistema de sequeiro nas condições ambientais de Lichinga, Niassa, Moçambique, atingindo rendimento de grãos de até 3 600 kg ha-1, dependendo das doses de adubação com fósforo e potássio. O feijão-comum respondeu à fertilização de fósforo e potássio apesar do alto teor desses nutrientes no solo, de acordo com a interpretação da análise do solo para o Cerrado brasileiro. O rendimento máximo de grãos, na média de duas safras, foi estimado em 239 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 141 kg ha-1 de K2O, indicando que estudos de calibração para P e K são necessários para esta região específica de Moçambique.

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          Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

          Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and polyphenol(s) (PP). We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g). PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID).
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            Fósforo na produtividade e qualidade de sementes de feijão Carioca Precoce cultivado no período das águas

            O fósforo é o nutriente que mais limita a produtividade do feijoeiro em solos brasileiros, podendo influenciar na qualidade fisiológica de sementes. Objetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade de sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) do cultivar Carioca Precoce cultivado no período das águas em resposta à adubação fosfatada. Foram avaliadas seis doses de P (0; 30; 60; 90; 120 e 150 kg de P2O5 ha-1), aplicados no sulco da semeadura na forma de superfosfato triplo, com cinco repetições. A produtividade de sementes foi determinada com base na massa das sementes produzidas na área útil da parcela experimental. A qualidade das sementes foi avaliada por meio das seguintes determinações: massa de 100 sementes, teor de água, germinação, primeira contagem, teor de água após o envelhecimento acelerado, germinação após o envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, emergência de plântulas no campo e massa de matéria seca de plântulas. A produtividade de sementes do feijão Carioca Precoce, cultivado no período das águas, aumentou linearmente em função do suprimento de P. A massa de 100 sementes e a qualidade fisiológica das sementes não foram alteradas pelo incremento das doses de P.
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              Efficiency in the use of phosphorus by common bean genotypes

              Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is frequently grown in weathered soils with low phosphorus (P) availability, and this is one of the main limitations on its production. This study aimed to assess 20 common bean genotypes in a hydroponic system to select the best P concentration for inducing nutritional deficiency and to classify the genotypes in terms of nutrient utilization efficiency. The concentrations of P applied were 8.00, 4.00, 2.00 and 0.05 mg L¹. At 21 days, in the plot subjected to an application of the most severe stress, the 0.05 mg L¹ dose of P, had smaller plant size and early leaf abscission was observed. The 4.00 mg L¹ dose of P was the most efficient in inducing stress for discrimination of cultivars in terms of efficiency of use of P. The following genotypes: IAPAR 81, Carioca Comum, IAC Carioca Tybatã, IAC Imperador and G 2333 stood out as being efficient and responsive to P, while the two cultivars DOR 364 and Jalo Precoce were the most inefficient and unresponsive.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbeaa
                Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental
                Rev. bras. eng. agríc. ambient.
                Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola - UFCG (Campina Grande, PB, Brazil )
                1415-4366
                1807-1929
                May 2018
                : 22
                : 5
                : 308-314
                Affiliations
                Campina Grande Paraíba orgnameEmbrapa Algodão orgdiv1Departamento Técnico Científico Brazil gilvan.ferreira@ 123456embrapa.br
                Passo Fundo Rio Grande do Sul orgnameEmbrapa Trigo orgdiv1Departamento Técnico Científico Brazil jose.denardin@ 123456embrapa.br
                Santo Antônio de Goiás Goiás orgnameEmbrapa Arroz e Feijão orgdiv1Departamento Técnico Científico Brazil maria.carvalho@ 123456embrapa.br
                Brasília Distrito Federal orgnameMinistério das Relações Exteriores orgdiv1Agência Brasileira de Cooperação Brazil celsomutadiua@ 123456yahoo.com.br
                Article
                S1415-43662018000500308
                10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v22n5p308-314
                acc0507e-3707-4bd1-846b-1ff9e9e6a3cd

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 7
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