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      Intraoperative carcinoid syndrome during small-bowel neuroendocrine tumour surgery


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          Only few descriptions of intraoperative carcinoid syndrome (ioCS) have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to describe ioCS. A second aim was to identify risk factors of ioCS. We retrospectively analysed patients operated for small-bowel neuroendocrine tumour in our institution between 2007 and 2015, and receiving our preventive local regimen of octreotide continuous administration. ioCS was defined as highly probable in case of rapid (<5 min) arterial blood pressure changes ≥40%, not explained by surgical/anaesthetic management and regressive ≥20% after octreotide bolus injection. Probable cases were ioCS which did not meet all criteria of highly-probable ioCS. Suspected ioCS were detected on the anaesthesia record by an injection of octreotide due to a manifestation which did not meet the criteria for highly-probable or probable ioCS. A total of 81 patients (liver metastases: 59, prior carcinoid syndrome: 49, carcinoid heart disease: 7) were included; 139 ioCS occurred in 45 patients: 45 highly probable, 67 probable and 27 suspected. ioCs was hypertensive (91%) and/or hypotensive (29%). There was no factor, including the use of vasopressors, significantly associated with the occurrence of an ioCS. All surgeries were completed and one patient died from cardiac failure 4 days after surgery. After preoperative octreotide continuous infusion, ioCS were mainly hypertensive. No ioCS risk factors, including vasopressor use, were identified. No intraoperative carcinoid crisis occurred, suggesting the clinical relevance of a standardized octreotide prophylaxis protocol.

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          Lanreotide in metastatic enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

          Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat symptoms associated with hormone hypersecretion in neuroendocrine tumors; however, data on their antitumor effects are limited. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study of the somatostatin analogue lanreotide in patients with advanced, well-differentiated or moderately differentiated, nonfunctioning, somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumors of grade 1 or 2 (a tumor proliferation index [on staining for the Ki-67 antigen] of <10%) and documented disease-progression status. The tumors originated in the pancreas, midgut, or hindgut or were of unknown origin. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an extended-release aqueous-gel formulation of lanreotide (Autogel [known in the United States as Depot], Ipsen) at a dose of 120 mg (101 patients) or placebo (103 patients) once every 28 days for 96 weeks. The primary end point was progression-free survival, defined as the time to disease progression (according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.0) or death. Secondary end points included overall survival, quality of life (assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-GI.NET21), and safety. Most patients (96%) had no tumor progression in the 3 to 6 months before randomization, and 33% had hepatic tumor volumes greater than 25%. Lanreotide, as compared with placebo, was associated with significantly prolonged progression-free survival (median not reached vs. median of 18.0 months, P<0.001 by the stratified log-rank test; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 0.73). The estimated rates of progression-free survival at 24 months were 65.1% (95% CI, 54.0 to 74.1) in the lanreotide group and 33.0% (95% CI, 23.0 to 43.3) in the placebo group. The therapeutic effect in predefined subgroups was generally consistent with that in the overall population, with the exception of small subgroups in which confidence intervals were wide. There were no significant between-group differences in quality of life or overall survival. The most common treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (in 26% of the patients in the lanreotide group and 9% of those in the placebo group). Lanreotide was associated with significantly prolonged progression-free survival among patients with metastatic enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors of grade 1 or 2 (Ki-67 <10%). (Funded by Ipsen; CLARINET ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00353496; EudraCT 2005-004904-35.).
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            Incidence of intraoperative hypotension as a function of the chosen definition: literature definitions applied to a retrospective cohort using automated data collection.

            Intraoperative hypotension (IOH) is a common side effect of general anesthesia and has been reported to be associated with adverse perioperative outcomes. These associations were found using different definitions for IOH. It is unknown whether the incidences of IOH found with those different definitions are comparable. The authors aimed to describe the relation between the chosen definition and incidence of IOH. First, a systematic literature search was performed to identify recent definitions of IOH that have been used in the anesthesia literature. Subsequently, these definitions were applied to a cohort of 15,509 consecutive adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery during general anesthesia. The incidence of IOH according to the different threshold values was calculated, and the effect of a defined minimal duration of a hypotensive episode was studied. Many different definitions of IOH were found. When applied to a cohort of patients, these different definitions resulted in different IOH incidences. Any episode of systolic blood pressure below 80 mmHg was found in 41% of the patients, whereas 93% of the patients had at least one episode of systolic blood pressure more than 20% below baseline. Both definitions are frequently used in the literature. The relation between threshold values from the literature and IOH incidence shows an S-shaped cumulative incidence curve, with occurrence frequencies of IOH varying from 5% to 99%. There is no widely accepted definition of IOH. With varying definitions, many different incidences can be reproduced. This might have implications for previously described associations between IOH and adverse outcomes.
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              ENETS Consensus Guidelines Update for Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Jejunum and Ileum


                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                December 2018
                04 October 2018
                : 7
                : 12
                : 1245-1250
                [1 ]Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine , Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France
                [2 ]Department of Visceral Surgery , Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France
                [3 ]Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Oncology , Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France
                [4 ]EA 7426 Hospices Civils de Lyon-University Claude Bernard Lyon 1-Biomérieux ‘Pathophysiology of Injury-Induced Immunosuppression’ Pi3 , Lyon, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to M Fouché: myrtille.fouche@ 123456chu-lyon.fr
                © 2018 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                : 20 September 2018
                : 04 October 2018

                carcinoids,neuroendocrine tumour,somatostatin
                carcinoids, neuroendocrine tumour, somatostatin


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