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      NF-κB-induced KIAA1199 promotes survival through EGFR signalling

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          Abstract

          Constitutive activation of EGFR- and NF-κB-dependent pathways is a hallmark of cancer, yet signalling proteins that connect both oncogenic cascades are poorly characterized. Here we define KIAA1199 as a BCL-3- and p65-dependent gene in transformed keratinocytes. KIAA1199 expression is enhanced on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is aberrantly expressed in clinical cases of cervical (pre)neoplastic lesions. Mechanistically, KIAA1199 binds Plexin A2 and protects from Semaphorin 3A-mediated cell death by promoting EGFR stability and signalling. Moreover, KIAA1199 is an EGFR-binding protein and KIAA1199 deficiency impairs EGF-dependent Src, MEK1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylations. Therefore, EGFR stability and signalling to downstream kinases requires KIAA1199. As such, KIAA1199 promotes EGF-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Taken together, our data define KIAA1199 as an oncogenic protein induced by HPV infection and constitutive NF-κB activity that transmits pro-survival and invasive signals through EGFR signalling.

          Abstract

          The cross-talk between constitutively active EGFR- and NF-κB-dependent pathways in cancer is poorly understood. Here, the authors identify KIAA1199 as a BCL3 and NF-κB-regulated protein that is expressed in cervical lesions and promotes tumorigenesis through Plexin A2 binding and regulation of EGFR stability.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Transcriptome profile of human colorectal adenomas.

          Colorectal cancers are believed to arise predominantly from adenomas. Although these precancerous lesions have been subjected to extensive clinical, pathologic, and molecular analyses, little is currently known about the global gene expression changes accompanying their formation. To characterize the molecular processes underlying the transformation of normal colonic epithelium, we compared the transcriptomes of 32 prospectively collected adenomas with those of normal mucosa from the same individuals. Important differences emerged not only between the expression profiles of normal and adenomatous tissues but also between those of small and large adenomas. A key feature of the transformation process was the remodeling of the Wnt pathway reflected in patent overexpression and underexpression of 78 known components of this signaling cascade. The expression of 19 Wnt targets was closely correlated with clear up-regulation of KIAA1199, whose function is currently unknown. In normal mucosa, KIAA1199 expression was confined to cells in the lower portion of intestinal crypts, where Wnt signaling is physiologically active, but it was markedly increased in all adenomas, where it was expressed in most of the epithelial cells, and in colon cancer cell lines, it was markedly reduced by inactivation of the beta-catenin/T-cell factor(s) transcription complex, the pivotal mediator of Wnt signaling. Our transcriptomic profiles of normal colonic mucosa and colorectal adenomas shed new light on the early stages of colorectal tumorigenesis and identified KIAA1199 as a novel target of the Wnt signaling pathway and a putative marker of colorectal adenomatous transformation.
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            Papillomavirus infections--a major cause of human cancers.

             H zur Hausen (1996)
            The papillomavirus family represents a remarkably heterogeneous group of viruses. At present, 77 distinct genotypes have been identified in humans and partial sequences have been obtained from more than 30 putative novel genotypes. Geographic differences in base composition of individual genotypes are generally small and suggest a low mutation rate and thus an ancient origin of today's prototypes. The relatively small size of the genome permitted an analysis of individual gene functions and of interactions of viral proteins with host cell components. Proliferating cells contain the viral genome in a latent form, large scale viral DNA replication, as well as translation and functional activity of late viral proteins, and viral particle assembly are restricted to differentiating layers of skin and mucosa. In humans papillomavirus infections cause a variety of benign proliferations: warts, epithelial cysts, intraepithelial neoplasias, anogenital, oro-laryngeal and -pharyngeal papillomas, keratoacanthomas and other types of hyperkeratoses. Their involvement in the etiology of some major human cancers is of particular interest: specific types (HPV 16, 18 and several others) have been identified as causative agents of at least 90% of cancers of the cervix and are also linked to more than 50% of other anogenital cancers. These HPV types are considered as 'high risk' infections. Their E6/E7 oncoproteins stimulate cell proliferation by activating cyclins E and A, and interfere with the functions of the cellular proteins RB and p53. The latter interaction appears to be responsible for their mutagenic and aneuploidizing activity as an underlying principle for the progression of these HPV-containing lesions and the role of high risk HPV types as solitary carcinogens. In non-transformed human keratinocytes transcription and function of viral oncoproteins is controlled by intercellular and intracellular signalling cascades, their interruption emerges as a precondition for immortalization and malignant growth. Recently, novel and known HPV types have also been identified in a high percentage of non-melanoma skin cancers (basal and squamous cell carcinomas). Similar to observations in patients with a rare hereditary condition, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, characterized by an extensive verrucosis and development of skin cancer, basal and squamous cell carcinomas develop preferentially in light-exposed sites. This could suggest an interaction between a physical carcinogen (UV-part of the sunlight) and a 'low risk' (non-mutagenic) papillomavirus infection. Reports on the presence of HPV infections in cancers of the oral cavity, the larynx, and the esophagus further emphasize the importance of this virus group as proven and suspected human carcinogens.
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              Cyld inhibits tumor cell proliferation by blocking Bcl-3-dependent NF-kappaB signaling.

              Mutations in the CYLD gene cause tumors of hair-follicle keratinocytes. The CYLD gene encodes a deubiquitinase that removes lysine 63-linked ubiquitin chains from TRAF2 and inhibits p65/p50 NF-kappaB activation. Here we show that mice lacking Cyld are highly susceptible to chemically induced skin tumors. Cyld-/- tumors and keratinocytes treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA) or UV light are hyperproliferative and have elevated cyclin D1 levels. The cyclin D1 elevation is caused not by increased p65/p50 action but rather by increased nuclear activity of Bcl-3-associated NF-kappaB p50 and p52. In Cyld+/+ keratinocytes, TPA or UV light triggers the translocation of Cyld from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear region, where Cyld binds and deubiquitinates Bcl-3, thereby preventing nuclear accumulation of Bcl-3 and p50/Bcl-3- or p52/Bcl-3-dependent proliferation. These data indicate that, depending on the external signals, Cyld can negatively regulate different NF-kappaB pathways; inactivation of TRAF2 controls survival and inflammation, while inhibition of Bcl-3 controls proliferation and tumor growth.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Pub. Group
                2041-1723
                04 November 2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Interdisciplinary Cluster for Applied Genoproteomics (GIGA-Research) , University of Liege , 1, Avenue de l'hôpital, CHU, Sart-Tilman, Liege 4000, Belgium
                [2 ]Laboratory of Medical Chemistry, University of Liege , 1, Avenue de l'hôpital, CHU, Sart-Tilman, Liege 4000, Belgium
                [3 ]GIGA-Signal Transduction, University of Liege , 1, Avenue de l'hôpital, CHU, Sart-Tilman, Liege 4000, Belgium
                [4 ]Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, University of Liege , 1, Avenue de l'hôpital, CHU, Sart-Tilman, Liege 4000, Belgium
                [5 ]GIGA-Cancer, University of Liege , 1, Avenue de l'hôpital, CHU, Sart-Tilman, Liege 4000, Belgium
                [6 ]GIGA Transcriptomics Facility, University of Liege , 1, Avenue de l'hôpital, CHU, Sart-Tilman, Liege 4000, Belgium
                [7 ]GIGA-Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Department of Medicine/Hematology, University of Liege , CHU, Sart-Tilman, Liege 4000, Belgium
                [8 ]Walloon Excellence in Life Sciences and Biotechnology (WELBIO) , University of Liege , 1, Avenue de l'hôpital, CHU, Sart-Tilman, Liege 4000, Belgium
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                ncomms6232
                10.1038/ncomms6232
                4241993
                25366117
                Copyright © 2014, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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