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      A novel fully automated method for mitral regurgitant orifice area quantification ☆☆

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          Abstract

          Background

          Effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) in mitral regurgitation (MR) is difficult to quantify. Clinically it is measured using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method, which is intrinsically not automatable, because it requires the operator to manually identify the mitral valve orifice. We introduce a new fully automated algorithm, (“AQURO”), which calculates EROA directly from echocardiographic colour M-mode data, without requiring operator input.

          Methods

          Multiple PISA measurements were compared to multiple AQURO measurements in twenty patients with MR. For PISA analysis, three mutually blinded observers measured EROA from the four stored video loops. For AQURO analysis, the software automatically processed the colour M-mode datasets and analysed the velocity field in the flow-convergence zone to extract EROA directly without any requirement for manual radius measurement.

          Results

          Reproducibility, measured by intraclass correlation (ICC), for PISA was 0.80, 0.83 and 0.83 (for 3 observers respectively). Reproducibility for AQURO was 0.97. Agreement between replicate measurements calculated using Bland-Altman standard deviation of difference (SDD) was 21,17 and 17mm 2for the three respective observers viewing independent video loops using PISA. Agreement between replicate measurements for AQURO was 6, 5 and 7mm 2for automated analysis of the three pairs of datasets.

          Conclusions

          By eliminating the need to identify the orifice location, AQURO avoids an important source of measurement variability. Compared with PISA, it also reduces the analysis time allowing analysis and averaging of data from significantly more beats, improving the consistency of EROA quantification.

          AQURO, being fully automated, is a simple, effective enhancement for EROA quantification using standard echocardiographic equipment.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Effective mitral regurgitant orifice area: clinical use and pitfalls of the proximal isovelocity surface area method.

          We attempted to determine the accuracy and pitfalls of calculating the mitral regurgitant orifice area with the proximal isovelocity surface area method in a clinical series that included patients with valvular prolapse and eccentric jets. The effective regurgitant orifice area, a measure of lesion severity of mitral regurgitation, can be calculated by the proximal isovelocity surface area method, the accuracy and pitfalls of which have not been established. In 119 consecutive patients with isolated mitral regurgitation, effective regurgitant orifice area was measured by the proximal isovelocity surface area method and compared with measurements simultaneously obtained by quantitative Doppler and quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography. The effective mitral regurgitant orifice area measured by the proximal isovelocity surface area method tended to be overestimated compared with that measured by quantitative Doppler and quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography (38 +/- 39 vs. 36 +/- 33 mm2 [p = 0.09] and 34 +/- 32 mm2 [p = 0.02], respectively). Overestimation was limited to patients with prolapse (61 +/- 43 vs. 56 +/- 35 mm2 [p = 0.05] and 54 +/- 34 mm2 [p = 0.014]) and was restricted to patients with nonoptimal flow convergence (n = 7; 137 +/- 35 vs. 84 +/- 34 mm2 [p = 0.002] and 79 +/- 33 mm2 [p = 0.002]). In patients with optimal flow convergence (n = 112), excellent correlations with both reference methods were obtained (r = 0.97, SEE 6 mm2 and r = 0.97, SEE 7 mm2, p < 0.0001). In calculating the mitral effective regurgitant orifice area with the proximal isovelocity surface area method, the observed pitfall (overestimation due to nonoptimal flow convergence) is rare. Otherwise, the method is reliable and can be used clinically in large numbers of patients.
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            A new method for quantitation of mitral regurgitation based on color flow Doppler imaging of flow convergence proximal to regurgitant orifice.

            Imaging of the flow convergence region (FCR) proximal to a regurgitant orifice has been shown to provide a method for quantifying the regurgitant flow rate. According to the continuity principle, the FCR is constituted by concentric hemispheric isovelocity surfaces centered at the orifice. The flow rate is constant across all isovelocity surfaces and equals the flow rate through the orifice. For any isovelocity surface the flow rate (Q) is given by: Q = 2 pi r2 Vr, where 2 pi r2 is the area of the hemisphere and Vr is the velocity at the radial distance (r) from the orifice. We studied 52 consecutive patients with mitral regurgitation (mean age, 49 years; age range, 21-66 years) verified by left ventricular angiography using color flow mapping. The FCR r was measured as the distance between the first aliasing limit--at a Nyquist limit obtained by zero-shifting the velocity cutoff to 38 cm/sec--and the regurgitant orifice. Seven patients without evidence of an FCR had only grade 1+ mitral regurgitation angiographically. There was a significant relation between the Doppler-derived maximal instantaneous regurgitant flow rate and the angiographic degree of mitral regurgitation in the other patients (rs = 0.91, p less than 0.001). The regurgitant flow rate by Doppler also correlated with the angiographic regurgitant volume (r = 0.93, SEE = 123 ml/sec) in the 15 patients in normal sinus rhythm and without other regurgitant lesions in whom it could be measured. The correlation between regurgitant jet area within the left atrium and the angiographic grade was only fair (rs = 0.75, p less than 0.001). Color flow Doppler provides new velocity information about the proximal FCR in patients with mitral regurgitation. According to the continuity principle, the maximal instantaneous regurgitant flow rate, obtained with the FCR method, may provide a quantitative estimate of the severity of mitral regurgitation, which is relatively independent of technical factors.
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              A new method for quantification of regurgitant flow rate using color Doppler flow imaging of the flow convergence region proximal to a discrete orifice. An in vitro study.

              While color Doppler flow mapping has yielded a quick and relatively sensitive method for visualizing the turbulent jets generated in valvular insufficiency, quantification of the degree of valvular insufficiency has been limited by the dependence of visualization of turbulent jets on hemodynamic as well as instrument-related factors. Color Doppler flow imaging, however, does have the capability of reliably showing the spatial relations of laminar flows. An area where flow accelerates proximal to a regurgitant orifice is commonly visualized on the left ventricular side of a mitral regurgitant orifice, especially when imaging is performed with high gain and a low pulse repetition frequency. This area of flow convergence, where the flow stream narrows symmetrically, can be quantified because velocity and the flow cross-sectional area change in inverse proportion along streamlines centered at the orifice. In this study, a gravity-driven constant-flow system with five sharp-edged diaphragm orifices (ranging from 2.9 to 12 mm in diameter) was imaged both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of flow through the orifice. Color Doppler flow images were produced by zero shifting so that the abrupt change in display color occurred at different velocities. This "aliasing boundary" with a known velocity and a measurable radial distance from the center of the orifice was used to determine an isovelocity hemisphere such that flow rate through the orifice was calculated as 2 pi r2 x Vr, where r is the radial distance from the center of the orifice to the color change and Vr is the velocity at which the color change was noted. Using Vr values from 54 to 14 cm/sec obtained with a 3.75-MHz transducer and from 75 to 18 cm/sec obtained with a 2.5-MHz transducer, we calculated flow rates and found them to correlate with measured flow rates (r = 0.94-0.99). The slope of the regression line was closest to unity when the lowest Vr and the correspondingly largest r were used in the calculation. The flow rates estimated from color Doppler flow imaging could also be used in conjunction with continuous-wave Doppler measurements of the maximal velocity of flow through the orifice to calculate orifice areas (r = 0.75-0.96 correlation with measured areas).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Cardiol
                Int. J. Cardiol
                International Journal of Cardiology
                Elsevier
                0167-5273
                1874-1754
                01 July 2013
                01 July 2013
                : 166
                : 3
                : 688-695
                Affiliations
                [a ]International Centre for Circulatory Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, 59-61 North Wharf Road, London W21LA, UK
                [b ]Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Ospedale Civile Maggiore, University of Verona, Piazzale Stefani 1, 37126 Verona, Italy
                [c ]Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, SW72AZ, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: ICCH building, 59-61 North Wharf Road, London W21LA, UK. Tel.:+44 7964729272; fax: + 44 2075941706. michela.moraldo@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJCA14262
                10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.11.104
                3675672
                22217482
                © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

                This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to certain conditions.

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