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      Growth Problems in Children with Asthma

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Children, Knemometry, Asthma, Inhaled corticosteroids, Growth

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          Abstract

          Growth problems are often seen in children with asthma. Rarely, these problems may be caused by poor asthma control. Negatively-deviating growth curves in asthmatic boys aged 8–15 years are often associated with a chronic delay in growth and puberty. Daily treatment with any dose of systemic corticosteroids suppresses the growth rate for as long as the treatment is maintained. The risk of growth rate suppression due to inhaled corticosteroids depends on the dose, administration regimen and delivery device. The risk becomes significant with ≧800 µg budesonide from a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer, and with ≧400 µg budesonide or fluticasone propionate from a dry-powder inhaler. Regardless of the treatment modality applied, all children with asthma should have their height growth measured at least every 6 months, and indications for endocrine work-up should follow general criteria for a growth-insufficient child.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Long-term effects of budesonide or nedocromil in children with asthma. The Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group.

          Antiinflammatory therapies, such as inhaled corticosteroids or nedocromil, are recommended for children with asthma, although there is limited information on their long-term use. We randomly assigned 1041 children from 5 through 12 years of age with mild-to-moderate asthma to receive 200 microg of budesonide (311 children), 8 mg of nedocromil (312 children), or placebo (418 children) twice daily. We treated the participants for four to six years. All children used albuterol for asthma symptoms. There was no significant difference between either treatment and placebo in the primary outcome, the degree of change in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, expressed as a percentage of the predicted value) after the administration of a bronchodilator. As compared with the children assigned to placebo, the children assigned to receive budesonide had a significantly smaller decline in the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC, expressed as a percentage) before the administration of a bronchodilator (decline in FEV1:FVC, 0.2 percent vs. 1.8 percent). The children given budesonide also had lower airway responsiveness to methacholine, fewer hospitalizations (2.5 vs. 4.4 per 100 person-years), fewer urgent visits to a caregiver (12 vs. 22 per 100 person-years), greater reduction in the need for albuterol for symptoms, fewer courses of prednisone, and a smaller percentage of days on which additional asthma medications were needed. As compared with placebo, nedocromil significantly reduced urgent care visits (16 vs. 22 per 100 person-years) and courses of prednisone. The mean increase in height in the budesonide group was 1.1 cm less than in the placebo group (22.7 vs. 23.8 cm, P=0.005); this difference was evident mostly within the first year. The height increase was similar in the nedocromil and placebo groups. In children with mild-to-moderate asthma, neither budesonide nor nedocromil is better than placebo in terms of lung function, but inhaled budesonide improves airway responsiveness and provides better control of asthma than placebo or nedocromil. The side effects of budesonide are limited to a small, transient reduction in growth velocity.
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            Effect of long-term treatment with inhaled budesonide on adult height in children with asthma.

            Short-term studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids may reduce the growth of children with asthma. However, the effect of long-term treatment on adult height is uncertain. We conducted a prospective study in children with asthma to examine the effect of long-term treatment with inhaled budesonide on adult height. We report on 211 children who have attained adult height: 142 budesonide-treated children with asthma, 18 control patients with asthma who have never received inhaled corticosteroids, and 51 healthy siblings of patients in the budesonide group, who also served as controls. The children in the budesonide group attained adult height after a mean of 9.2 years of budesonide treatment (range, 3 to 13) at a mean daily dose of 412 microg (range, 110 to 877). The mean cumulative dose of budesonide was 1.35 g (range, 0.41 to 3.99). The mean differences between the measured and target adult heights were +0.3 cm (95 percent confidence interval, -0.6 to + 1.2) for the budesonide-treated children, -0.2 cm (95 percent confidence interval, -2.4 to +2.1) for the control children with asthma, and +0.9 cm (95 percent confidence interval, -0.4 to +2.2) for the healthy siblings. The adult height depended significantly (P<0.001) on the child's height before budesonide treatment. Although growth rates were significantly reduced during the first years of budesonide treatment, these changes in growth rate were not significantly associated with adult height. Children with asthma who have received long-term treatment with budesonide attain normal adult height.
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              A comparison of beclomethasone, salmeterol, and placebo in children with asthma. Canadian Beclomethasone Dipropionate-Salmeterol Xinafoate Study Group.

               F Simons (1997)
              An inhaled glucocorticoid is currently the medication of choice for long-term control of persistent asthma in children. The role of long-acting beta2-adrenergic-receptor agonists, such as salmeterol, needs to be defined. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, one-year study of 241 children (mean [+/-SD] age, 9.3+/-2.4 years) with clinically stable asthma and less than one month of prior glucocorticoid use. We compared inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (200 microg twice daily) with salmeterol xinafoate (50 microg twice daily) and placebo (lactose). The primary outcome measure, airway responsiveness (as assessed with a methacholine challenge) was evaluated before treatment; after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment (12 and 36 hours after study medications had been withheld); and 2 weeks after the end of treatment. Spirometry, symptoms, use of rescue medication (200 microg of albuterol inhaled as needed), and adverse effects were also assessed. During months 1 through 12 overall, beclomethasone was associated with significantly less airway hyperresponsiveness than salmeterol (P= 0.003) or placebo (P<0.001). This effect was lost two weeks after treatment had been stopped. As compared with placebo, beclomethasone was associated with less variability between morning and evening in the peak expiratory flow (P=0.002), as was salmeterol (P=0.02). Beclomethasone was also associated with a reduced need for albuterol as rescue therapy (P<0.001) and fewer withdrawals because of asthma exacerbations (P=0.03), but salmeterol was not (P=0.09 and 0.55, respectively). During months 1 through 12, linear growth was 3.96 cm in the children receiving beclomethasone, as compared with 5.40 cm in the salmeterol group (P=0.004) and 5.04 cm in the placebo group (P=0.018). Height was not measured after treatment ended. Beclomethasone was effective in reducing airway hyperresponsiveness and in controlling symptoms of asthma, but it was associated with decreased linear growth. Salmeterol was not as effective as beclomethasone in reducing airway hyperresponsiveness or in controlling symptoms; however, it was an effective bronchodilator and was not associated with rebound airway hyperresponsiveness, masking of symptoms, or adverse effects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7429-7
                978-3-318-00854-8
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2002
                2002
                17 November 2004
                : 57
                : Suppl 2
                : 83-87
                Affiliations
                Children’s Clinic Randers, Randers, Denmark
                Article
                58107 Horm Res 2002;57(suppl 2):83–87
                10.1159/000058107
                12065934
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 1, References: 31, Pages: 5
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