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Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012 : Globocan 2012

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      Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008.

      Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
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        Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012.

        Cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 25 cancers are presented for the 40 countries in the four United Nations-defined areas of Europe and for the European Union (EU-27) for 2012. We used statistical models to estimate national incidence and mortality rates in 2012 from recently-published data, predicting incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 from recent trends, wherever possible. The estimated rates in 2012 were applied to the corresponding population estimates to obtain the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in Europe in 2012. There were an estimated 3.45 million new cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and 1.75 million deaths from cancer in Europe in 2012. The most common cancer sites were cancers of the female breast (464,000 cases), followed by colorectal (447,000), prostate (417,000) and lung (410,000). These four cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Europe. The most common causes of death from cancer were cancers of the lung (353,000 deaths), colorectal (215,000), breast (131,000) and stomach (107,000). In the European Union, the estimated numbers of new cases of cancer were approximately 1.4 million in males and 1.2 million in females, and around 707,000 men and 555,000 women died from cancer in the same year. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Europe alongside the description of the varying distribution of common cancers at both the regional and country level provide a basis for establishing priorities to cancer control actions in Europe. The important role of cancer registries in disease surveillance and in planning and evaluating national cancer plans is becoming increasingly recognised, but needs to be further advocated. The estimates and software tools for further analysis (EUCAN 2012) are available online as part of the European Cancer Observatory (ECO) (http://eco.iarc.fr). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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          Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis.

          Infections with certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites have been identified as strong risk factors for specific cancers. An update of their respective contribution to the global burden of cancer is warranted. We considered infectious agents classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We calculated their population attributable fraction worldwide and in eight geographical regions, using statistics on estimated cancer incidence in 2008. When associations were very strong, calculations were based on the prevalence of infection in cancer cases rather than in the general population. Estimates of infection prevalence and relative risk were extracted from published data. Of the 12·7 million new cancer cases that occurred in 2008, the population attributable fraction (PAF) for infectious agents was 16·1%, meaning that around 2 million new cancer cases were attributable to infections. This fraction was higher in less developed countries (22·9%) than in more developed countries (7·4%), and varied from 3·3% in Australia and New Zealand to 32·7% in sub-Saharan Africa. Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B and C viruses, and human papillomaviruses were responsible for 1·9 million cases, mainly gastric, liver, and cervix uteri cancers. In women, cervix uteri cancer accounted for about half of the infection-related burden of cancer; in men, liver and gastric cancers accounted for more than 80%. Around 30% of infection-attributable cases occur in people younger than 50 years. Around 2 million cancer cases each year are caused by infectious agents. Application of existing public health methods for infection prevention, such as vaccination, safer injection practice, or antimicrobial treatments, could have a substantial effect on the future burden of cancer worldwide. Fondation Innovations en Infectiologie (FINOVI) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer; Lyon France
            [2 ]Tata Memorial Hospital; Mumbai India
            [3 ]Izmir Cancer Registry, Izmir Hub, Izmir & Hacettepe University Institute of Public Health; Ankara Turkey
            [4 ]Department of Measurement and Health Information Systems; WHO; Geneva Switzerland
            [5 ]Department of Surveillance and Cancer Information; Brazilian National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Health; Rio de Janeiro Brazil
            [6 ]Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit; University of Oxford; Oxford United Kingdom
            Journal
            International Journal of Cancer
            Int. J. Cancer
            Wiley
            00207136
            March 01 2015
            March 01 2015
            October 09 2014
            : 136
            : 5
            : E359-E386
            10.1002/ijc.29210
            © 2014

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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            Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ijc.29210

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