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      Advanced cervical dilatation as a predictor for low emergency cesarean delivery: a comparison between migrant and non-migrant Primiparae – secondary analysis in Berlin, Germany


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          Cesarean rates are higher in women admitted to labor ward during early stages rather than at later stages of labor. In a study in Germany, crude cesarean rates among Turkish and Lebanese immigrant women were low compared to non-immigrant women. We evaluated whether these immigrant women were admitted during later stages of labor, and if so, whether this explains their lower cesarean rates.


          We enrolled 1413 nulliparous women with vertex pregnancies, singleton birth, and 37+ week of gestation, excluding elective cesarean deliveries, in three Berlin obstetric hospitals. We applied binary logistic regression to adjust for social and obstetric factors; and standardized coefficients to rank predictors derived from the regression model.


          At the time of admission to labor ward, a smaller proportion of Turkish migrant women was in the active phase of labor (cervical dilation: 4+ cm), compared to women of Lebanese origin and non-immigrant women. Rates of cesarean deliveries were lower in women of Turkish and Lebanese origin (15.8 and 13.9%) than in non-immigrant women (23.9%). In the logistic regression analysis, more advanced cervical dilatation was inversely associated with the outcome cesarean delivery (OR: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.70–0.82). In addition, higher maternal age (OR: 1.06, 95%CI: 1.04–1.09), application of oxytocic agents (OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.42–0.72), and obesity (OR: 2.25, 95%CI: 1.51–3.34) were associated with the outcome. Ranking of predictors indicate that cervical dilatation is the most relevant predictor derived from the regression model.


          Advanced cervical dilatation at the time of admission to labor ward does not explain lower emergency cesarean delivery rates in Turkish and Lebanese migrant women, despite the fact that this is the strongest among the predictors for emergency cesarean delivery identified in this study.

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          Cesarean delivery: background, trends, and epidemiology.

          To examine trends in cesarean delivery for the overall population and for women with "no indicated risk" for cesarean section, and to summarize the available literature on "maternal request" cesarean deliveries. Nearly 3 in 10 births were delivered by cesarean section in 2004 (29.1%), the highest rate ever reported in the United States. The overall rate has increased by over 40% since 1996, reflecting two concurrent trends: an increase in the primary rate (14.6% to 20.6%), and a steep decline in the rate of vaginal birth after cesarean (28.3% to 9.2%). There has been a clear increase in primary cesarean delivery without a medical or obstetrical indication, and studies using hospital discharge data or birth certificate data estimate the rate of primary cesarean deliveries with no reported medical or obstetrical indication to be between 3% and 7% of all deliveries to women who had not had a previous cesarean delivery. However, these studies contain no direct information on whether these cesareans were the result of maternal request or because of physician recommendation. There was little data to support the contention that the rise in the cesarean rate was the result of maternal request. There are no systematic data available on cesarean delivery by "maternal request." However, the rate of primary cesarean delivery is increasing rapidly for women of all ages, races, and medical conditions, as well as for births at all gestational ages. Since a first cesarean section virtually guarantees that subsequent pregnancies will be cesarean deliveries (the repeat cesarean delivery rate is now almost 91%), research is needed on physician practice patterns, maternal attitudes, clinical outcomes for mother and infant (harms, benefits), and clinical and nonclinical factors (institutional, legal, economic) that affect the decision to have a cesarean delivery.
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            International migration and caesarean birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

            Background Perinatal health disparities including disparities in caesarean births have been observed between migrant and non-migrant women and some literature suggests that non-medical factors may be implicated. A systematic review was conducted to determine if migrants in Western industrialized countries consistently have different rates of caesarean than receiving-country-born women and to identify the reasons that explain these differences. Methods Reports were identified by searching 12 literature databases (from inception to January 2012; no language limits) and the web, by bibliographic citation hand-searches and through key informants. Studies that compared caesarean rates between international migrants and non-migrants living in industrialized countries and that did not have a ‘fatal flaw’ according to the US Preventative Services Task Force criteria were included. Studies were summarized, analyzed descriptively and where possible, meta-analyzed. Results Seventy-six studies met inclusion criteria. Caesarean rates between migrants and non-migrants differed in 69% of studies. Meta-analyses revealed consistently higher overall caesarean rates for Sub-Saharan African, Somali and South Asian women; higher emergency rates for North African/West Asian and Latin American women; and lower overall rates for Eastern European and Vietnamese women. Evidence to explain the consistently different rates was limited. Frequently postulated risk factors for caesarean included: language/communication barriers, low SES, poor maternal health, GDM/high BMI, feto-pelvic disproportion, and inadequate prenatal care. Suggested protective factors included: a healthy immigrant effect, preference for a vaginal birth, a healthier lifestyle, younger mothers and the use of fewer interventions during childbirth. Conclusion Certain groups of international migrants consistently have different caesarean rates than receiving-country-born women. There is insufficient evidence to explain the observed differences.
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              Recent trends in cesarean delivery in the United States.

              Data from the Natality Data File, National Vital Statistics System. The cesarean rate rose by 53% from 1996 to 2007, reaching 32%, the highest rate ever reported in the United States. From 1996 to 2007, the cesarean rate increased for mothers in all age and racial and Hispanic origin groups. The pace of the increase accelerated from 2000 to 2007. Cesarean rates also increased for infants at all gestational ages; from 1996 to 2006 preterm infants had the highest rates. Cesarean rates increased for births to mothers in all U.S. states, and by more than 70% in six states from 1996 to 2007.

                Author and article information

                BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
                BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
                BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
                BioMed Central (London )
                3 January 2019
                3 January 2019
                : 19
                : 1
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0944 9128, GRID grid.7491.b, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology & International Public Health, , Bielefeld University, ; Bielefeld, Germany
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2218 4662, GRID grid.6363.0, Obstetrics Clinics, , Charité University Medicine Berlin, ; Campus Virchow-Klinikum and Mitte, Berlin, Germany
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0198 6180, GRID grid.410722.2, Alice Salomon Hochschule Berlin, , University of Applied Sciences, ; Berlin, Germany
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2218 4662, GRID grid.6363.0, Clinic for Gynaecology, , Charité University Medicine Berlin, ; Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1018 4307, GRID grid.5807.a, Institute of General Medicine, Medical Faculty, , Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, ; Magdeburg, Germany
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 9 October 2018
                : 12 December 2018
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: DA 1199/2-1
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                maternal obesity,gestational weight gain,fetal macrosomia,cesarean delivery,immigrant women


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