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      Present and Future of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

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          Abstract

          Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common respiratory disorder among infants born extremely preterm. The pathogenesis of BPD involves multiple prenatal and postnatal mechanisms affecting the development of a very immature lung. Their combined effects alter the lung’s morphogenesis, disrupt capillary gas exchange in the alveoli, and lead to the pathological and clinical features of BPD. The disorder is ultimately the result of an aberrant repair response to antenatal and postnatal injuries to the developing lungs. Neonatology has made huge advances in dealing with conditions related to prematurity, but efforts to prevent and treat BPD have so far been only partially effective. Seeing that BPD appears to have a role in the early origin of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, its prevention is pivotal also in long-term respiratory outcome of these patients. There is currently some evidence to support the use of antenatal glucocorticoids, surfactant therapy, protective noninvasive ventilation, targeted saturations, early caffeine treatment, vitamin A, and fluid restriction, but none of the existing strategies have had any significant impact in reducing the burden of BPD. New areas of research are raising novel therapeutic prospects, however. For instance, early topical (intratracheal or nebulized) steroids seem promising: they might help to limit BPD development without the side effects of systemic steroids. Evidence in favor of stem cell therapy has emerged from several preclinical trials, and from a couple of studies in humans. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have revealed a reparatory capability, preventing the progression of BPD in animal models. Administering MSC-conditioned media containing extracellular vesicles (EVs) have also demonstrated a preventive action, without the potential risks associated with unwanted engraftment or the adverse effects of administering cells. In this paper, we explore these emerging treatments and take a look at the revolutionary changes in BPD and neonatology on the horizon.

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          Most cited references 175

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          Soluble endoglin and other circulating antiangiogenic factors in preeclampsia.

          Alterations in circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), an antiangiogenic protein, and placental growth factor (PlGF), a proangiogenic protein, appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Since soluble endoglin, another antiangiogenic protein, acts together with sFlt1 to induce a severe preeclampsia-like syndrome in pregnant rats, we examined whether it is associated with preeclampsia in women. We performed a nested case-control study of healthy nulliparous women within the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention trial. The study included all 72 women who had preterm preeclampsia ( or =37 weeks), 120 women with gestational hypertension, 120 normotensive women who delivered infants who were small for gestational age, and 120 normotensive controls who delivered infants who were not small for gestational age. Circulating soluble endoglin levels increased markedly beginning 2 to 3 months before the onset of preeclampsia. After the onset of clinical disease, the mean serum level in women with preterm preeclampsia was 46.4 ng per milliliter, as compared with 9.8 ng per milliliter in controls (P<0.001). The mean serum level in women with preeclampsia at term was 31.0 ng per milliliter, as compared with 13.3 ng per milliliter in controls (P<0.001). Beginning at 17 weeks through 20 weeks of gestation, soluble endoglin levels were significantly higher in women in whom preterm preeclampsia later developed than in controls (10.2 ng per milliliter vs. 5.8 ng per milliliter, P<0.001), and at 25 through 28 weeks of gestation, the levels were significantly higher in women in whom term preeclampsia developed than in controls (8.5 ng per milliliter vs. 5.9 ng per milliliter, P<0.001). An increased level of soluble endoglin was usually accompanied by an increased ratio of sFlt1:PlGF. The risk of preeclampsia was greatest among women in the highest quartile of the control distributions for both biomarkers but not for either biomarker alone. Rising circulating levels of soluble endoglin and ratios of sFlt1:PlGF herald the onset of preeclampsia. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Paracrine mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy: current status and perspectives.

            Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of a few stem cell types to be applied in clinical practice as therapeutic agents for immunomodulation and ischemic tissue repair. In addition to their multipotent differentiation potential, a strong paracrine capacity has been proposed as the principal mechanism that contributes to tissue repair. Apart from cytokine/chemokine secretion, MSCs also display a strong capacity for mitochondrial transfer and microvesicle (exosomes) secretion in response to injury with subsequent promotion of tissue regeneration. These unique properties of MSCs make them an invaluable cell type to repair damaged tissues/organs. Although MSCs offer great promise in the treatment of degenerative diseases and inflammatory disorders, there are still many challenges to overcome prior to their widespread clinical application. Particularly, their in-depth paracrine mechanisms remain a matter for debate and exploration. This review will highlight the discovery of the paracrine mechanism of MSCs, regulation of the paracrine biology of MSCs, important paracrine factors of MSCs in modulation of tissue repair, exosome and mitochondrial transfer for tissue repair, and the future perspective for MSC-based therapy.
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              A phase I study of dexosome immunotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

              Background There is a continued need to develop more effective cancer immunotherapy strategies. Exosomes, cell-derived lipid vesicles that express high levels of a narrow spectrum of cell proteins represent a novel platform for delivering high levels of antigen in conjunction with costimulatory molecules. We performed this study to test the safety, feasibility and efficacy of autologous dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes (DEX) loaded with the MAGE tumor antigens in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods This Phase I study enrolled HLA A2+ patients with pre-treated Stage IIIb (N = 4) and IV (N = 9) NSCLC with tumor expression of MAGE-A3 or A4. Patients underwent leukapheresis to generate DC from which DEX were produced and loaded with MAGE-A3, -A4, -A10, and MAGE-3DPO4 peptides. Patients received 4 doses of DEX at weekly intervals. Results Thirteen patients were enrolled and 9 completed therapy. Three formulations of DEX were evaluated; all were well tolerated with only grade 1–2 adverse events related to the use of DEX (injection site reactions (N = 8), flu like illness (N = 1), and peripheral arm pain (N = 1)). The time from the first dose of DEX until disease progression was 30 to 429+ days. Three patients had disease progression before the first DEX dose. Survival of patients after the first DEX dose was 52–665+ days. DTH reactivity against MAGE peptides was detected in 3/9 patients. Immune responses were detected in patients as follows: MAGE-specific T cell responses in 1/3, increased NK lytic activity in 2/4. Conclusion Production of the DEX vaccine was feasible and DEX therapy was well tolerated in patients with advanced NSCLC. Some patients experienced long term stability of disease and activation of immune effectors
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                20 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 9
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy; lucabonadies@ 123456hotmail.it (L.B.); patriz.zaramella@ 123456gmail.com (P.Z.)
                [2 ]Human Anatomy Section, Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy; andrea.porzionato@ 123456unipd.it
                [3 ]Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy; giorgio.perilongo@ 123456unipd.it
                [4 ]Institute of Pediatric Research “Città della Speranza”, Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy; muraca@ 123456unipd.it
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: eugenio.baraldi@ 123456unipd.it ; Tel.: +39-049-821-3560; Fax: +39-049-821-3502
                Article
                jcm-09-01539
                10.3390/jcm9051539
                7290764
                32443685
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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