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      Detection and genetic characterization of Giardia duodenalis in pigs from large-scale farms in Xinjiang, China Translated title: Détection et caractérisation génétique de Giardia duodenalis chez des porcs de grandes exploitations du Xinjiang, en Chine

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          Abstract

          To study the presence of Giardia duodenalis in Xinjiang, northwest China, we collected 801 fecal specimens from seven large-scale pig farms and screened them using PCR targeting the SSU rRNA gene. Twenty-one (2.6%) of the specimens from five farms were G. duodenalis-positive, with a significant difference in prevalence among different farms (0–8.7%) ( p < 0.01). Giardia duodenalis prevalence was highest in fattening pigs (5.4%, 7/129), followed by sows (3.2%, 7/222), post-weaning piglets (1.8%, 5/281), and pre-weaning piglets (1.2%, 2/169), but there was no significant difference in prevalence among the age groups ( p > 0.05). Sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene revealed that the 21 G. duodenalis strains belonged to three assemblages: A ( n = 2), B ( n = 16), and E ( n = 3). Assemblage B was the predominant assemblage and was widely distributed in all G. duodenalis-positive farms and age groups. All G. duodenalis-positive specimens were further assayed at the β-giardin ( bg), glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi) genes, and two tpi, four gdh, and two bg sequences were identified. These data indicate that pigs may be a zoonotic risk and can potentially spread G. duodenalis infection from animals to humans.

          Translated abstract

          Afin d’étudier la présence de Giardia duodenalis dans le Xinjiang, dans le nord-ouest de la Chine, nous avons collecté 801 échantillons de selles de sept grandes exploitations porcines et les avons analysés à l’aide d’une PCR ciblant le gène SSU de l’ARNr. Vingt-et-un (2,6 %) des spécimens provenant de cinq exploitations étaient positifs pour G. duodenalis, avec une différence de prévalence significative entre les différentes exploitations (0 % à 8,7 %) ( p < 0,01). La prévalence de Giardia duodenalis était la plus élevée chez les porcs d’engraissement (5,4 %, 7/129), suivie des truies (3,2 %, 7/222), des porcelets en post-sevrage (1,8 %, 5/281) et des porcelets en pré-sevrage (1,2 %, 2/169), mais il n’y avait pas de différence significative dans la prévalence entre les groupes d’âge ( p > 0,05). L’analyse de la séquence du gène SSU de l’ARNr a révélé que les 21 souches de G. duodenalis appartenaient à trois assemblages : A ( n = 2), B ( n = 16) et E ( n = 3). L’assemblage B était l’assemblage prédominant et était largement distribué dans toutes les fermes et groupes d’âge positifs pour G. duodenalis. Tous les échantillons positifs pour G. duodenalis ont ensuite été analysés pour les gènes β-giardine ( bg), glutamate déshydrogénase ( gdh) et triosephosphate isomérase ( tpi), et deux séquences de tpi, quatre de gdh et deux de bg ont été identifiées. Ces données indiquent que les porcs peuvent présenter un risque zoonotique et potentiellement transmettre l’infection à G. duodenalis des animaux à l’homme.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Zoonotic potential and molecular epidemiology of Giardia species and giardiasis.

          Molecular diagnostic tools have been used recently in assessing the taxonomy, zoonotic potential, and transmission of Giardia species and giardiasis in humans and animals. The results of these studies have firmly established giardiasis as a zoonotic disease, although host adaptation at the genotype and subtype levels has reduced the likelihood of zoonotic transmission. These studies have also identified variations in the distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes among geographic areas and between domestic and wild ruminants and differences in clinical manifestations and outbreak potentials of assemblages A and B. Nevertheless, our efforts in characterizing the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis and the roles of various animals in the transmission of human giardiasis are compromised by the lack of case-control and longitudinal cohort studies and the sampling and testing of humans and animals living in the same community, the frequent occurrence of infections with mixed genotypes and subtypes, and the apparent heterozygosity at some genetic loci for some G. duodenalis genotypes. With the increased usage of multilocus genotyping tools, the development of next-generation subtyping tools, the integration of molecular analysis in epidemiological studies, and an improved understanding of the population genetics of G. duodenalis in humans and animals, we should soon have a better appreciation of the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis, the disease burden of zoonotic transmission, the taxonomy status and virulences of various G. duodenalis genotypes, and the ecology of environmental contamination.
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            Triosephosphate Isomerase Gene Characterization and Potential Zoonotic Transmission of Giardia duodenalis

            To address the source of infection in humans and public health importance of Giardia duodenalis parasites from animals, nucleotide sequences of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene were generated for 37 human isolates, 15 dog isolates, 8 muskrat isolates, 7 isolates each from cattle and beavers, and 1 isolate each from a rat and a rabbit. Distinct genotypes were found in humans, cattle, beavers, dogs, muskrats, and rats. TPI and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of G. microti from muskrats were also generated and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis on the TPI sequences confirmed the formation of distinct groups. Nevertheless, a major group (assemblage B) contained most of the human and muskrat isolates, all beaver isolates, and the rabbit isolate. These data confirm that G. duodenalis from certain animals can potentially infect humans and should be useful in the detection, differentiation, and taxonomy of Giardia spp.
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              Genetic heterogeneity at the beta-giardin locus among human and animal isolates of Giardiaduodenalis and identification of potentially zoonotic subgenotypes.

              Human giardiasis, caused by the intestinal flagellate Giardia duodenalis, is considered a zoonotic infection, although the role of animals in the transmission to humans is still unclear. Molecular characterisation of cysts of human and animal origin represents an objective means to validate or reject this hypothesis. In the present work, cysts were collected in Italy from humans (n=37) and animals (dogs, one cat and calves, n=46), and were characterised by PCR amplification and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene. As expected, only Assemblages A and B were identified among human isolates. The host-specific Assemblages C and D were found in the majority of dog isolates; however, 6 dog isolates were typed as Assemblage A. The cat-specific Assemblage F has been identified in the single feline isolate available. Among calf isolates, most were typed as Assemblages A (n=12) and B (n=5), whereas the host-specific Assemblage E was rarely found (n=3). Sequence heterogeneity in the beta-giardin gene allowed a number of subgenotypes to be identified within Assemblage A (8 subgenotypes), B (6 subgenotypes), D (2 subgenotypes), and E (3 subgenotypes). Five of these subgenotypes, namely A1, A2, A3, A4 and B3, were found to be associated with infections of humans, of dogs and of calves; these data, therefore, supported the role of these animals as a source of infection for humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                26 August 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] College of Animal Science, Tarim University Alar 843300 Xinjiang PR China
                [2 ] College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University Zhengzhou 450046 Henan PR China
                [3 ] Experimental and Research Center, Henan University of Animal Husbandry and Economy Zhengzhou 450046 Henan PR China
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite190061 10.1051/parasite/2019056
                10.1051/parasite/2019056
                6709646
                31448999
                © B. Jing et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Article

                zoonoses, assemblages, pcr, prevalence, giardia duodenalis

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