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      [ 177Lu-DOTA] 0-D-Phe 1-Tyr 3-Octreotide ( 177Lu-DOTATOC) For Peptide Receptor Radiotherapy in Patients with Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumours: A Phase-II Study

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          Purpose: To characterise efficacy and safety of 177Lu-DOTATOC as agent for peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT) of advanced neuroendocrine tumours (NET).

          Patients and methods: Fifty-six subjects with metastasized and progressive NET (50% gastroenteral, 26.8% pancreatic, 23.2% other primary sites) treated consecutively with 177Lu-DOTATOC were analysed retrospectively. Subjects were administered 177Lu-DOTATOC (mean 2.1 cycles; range 1-4) as 7.0GBq (median) doses at three-monthly intervals. Efficacy was analysed using CT and/or MRI according to RECIST 1.1 criteria and results were stratified for the number of administered cycles and the primary tumour origin.

          Results: In the total NET population (A), median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 17.4 and 34.2 months, respectively, assessed in a follow-up time (mean ± SD) of 16.1 ± 12.4 months. In patients receiving more than one cycle, mean follow-up time was 22.4 ± 11.0 months for all NETs (B) and PFS was 32.0 months for all NETs (B), 34.5 months for GEP-NET (C), and 11.9 months for other NETs (D). Objective response rates (Complete/Partial Responses) were 33.9%, 40.6%, 54.2%, and 0% for A, B, C, and D groups, respectively, while disease control rates in the same were 66.1%, 93.8%, 100%, and 75%. Complete responses (16.1%, 18.8% and 25.0% for groups A, B and C) were high, 78% of which were maintained throughout the follow up. There were no serious adverse events. One case of self-limiting grade 3 myelotoxicity was reported. Although 20% of patients had mild renal insufficiency at baseline, there was no evidence of exacerbated or de novo renal toxicity after treatment.

          Conclusion: 177Lu-DOTATOC is a novel agent for PRRT with major potential to induce objective tumour responses and sustained disease control in progressive neuroendocrine tumours, even when administered in moderate activities. The observed safety profile suggests a particularly favourable therapeutic index, including in patients with impaired bone marrow or renal function, which reflects a uniquely low uptake of 177Lu-DOTATOC by normal organs.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Sunitinib malate for the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

          The multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has shown activity against pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in preclinical models and phase 1 and 2 trials. We conducted a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of sunitinib in patients with advanced, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. All patients had Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors-defined disease progression documented within 12 months before baseline. A total of 171 patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive best supportive care with either sunitinib at a dose of 37.5 mg per day or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival; secondary end points included the objective response rate, overall survival, and safety. The study was discontinued early, after the independent data and safety monitoring committee observed more serious adverse events and deaths in the placebo group as well as a difference in progression-free survival favoring sunitinib. Median progression-free survival was 11.4 months in the sunitinib group as compared with 5.5 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.66; P<0.001). A Cox proportional-hazards analysis of progression-free survival according to baseline characteristics favored sunitinib in all subgroups studied. The objective response rate was 9.3% in the sunitinib group versus 0% in the placebo group. At the data cutoff point, 9 deaths were reported in the sunitinib group (10%) versus 21 deaths in the placebo group (25%) (hazard ratio for death, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.89; P=0.02). The most frequent adverse events in the sunitinib group were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, asthenia, and fatigue. Continuous daily administration of sunitinib at a dose of 37.5 mg improved progression-free survival, overall survival, and the objective response rate as compared with placebo among patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00428597.).
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            Treatment with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog [177 Lu-DOTA 0,Tyr3]octreotate: toxicity, efficacy, and survival.

            Despite the fact that most gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) are slow-growing, median overall survival (OS) in patients with liver metastases is 2 to 4 years. In metastatic disease, cytoreductive therapeutic options are limited. A relatively new therapy is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate. Here we report on the toxicity and efficacy of this treatment, performed in over 500 patients. Patients were treated up to a cumulative dose of 750 to 800 mCi (27.8-29.6 GBq), usually in four treatment cycles, with treatment intervals of 6 to 10 weeks. Toxicity analysis was done in 504 patients, and efficacy analysis in 310 patients. Any hematologic toxicity grade 3 or 4 occurred after 3.6% of administrations. Serious adverse events that were likely attributable to the treatment were myelodysplastic syndrome in three patients, and temporary, nonfatal, liver toxicity in two patients. Complete and partial tumor remissions occurred in 2% and 28% of 310 GEPNET patients, respectively. Minor tumor response (decrease in size > 25% and < 50%) occurred in 16%. Median time to progression was 40 months. Median OS from start of treatment was 46 months, median OS from diagnosis was 128 months. Compared with historical controls, there was a survival benefit of 40 to 72 months from diagnosis. Treatment with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate has few adverse effects. Tumor response rates and progression-free survival compare favorably to the limited number of alternative treatment modalities. Compared with historical controls, there is a benefit in OS from time of diagnosis of several years.
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              Affinity profiles for human somatostatin receptor subtypes SST1-SST5 of somatostatin radiotracers selected for scintigraphic and radiotherapeutic use.

              In vivo somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using Octreoscan is a valuable method for the visualisation of human endocrine tumours and their metastases. Recently, several new, alternative somatostatin radioligands have been synthesised for diagnostic and radiotherapeutic use in vivo. Since human tumours are known to express various somatostatin receptor subtypes, it is mandatory to assess the receptor subtype affinity profile of such somatostatin radiotracers. Using cell lines transfected with somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1, sst2, sst3, sst4 and sst5, we have evaluated the in vitro binding characteristics of labelled (indium, yttrium, gallium) and unlabelled DOTA-[Tyr3]-octreotide, DOTA-octreotide, DOTA-lanreotide, DOTA-vapreotide, DTPA-[Tyr3]-octreotate and DOTA-[Tyr3]-octreotate. Small structural modifications, chelator substitution or metal replacement were shown to considerably affect the binding affinity. A marked improvement of sst2 affinity was found for Ga-DOTA-[Tyr3]-octreotide (IC50 2.5 nM) compared with the Y-labelled compound and Octreoscan. An excellent binding affinity for sst2 in the same range was also found for In-DTPA-[Tyr3]-octreotate (IC50 1.3 nM) and for Y-DOTA-[Tyr3]-octreotate (IC50 1.6 nM). Remarkably, Ga-DOTA-[Tyr3]-octreotate bound at sst2 with a considerably higher affinity (IC50 0.2 nM). An up to 30-fold improvement in sst3 affinity was observed for unlabelled or Y-labelled DOTA-octreotide compared with their Tyr3-containing analogue, suggesting that replacement of Tyr3 by Phe is crucial for high sst3 affinity. Substitution in the octreotide molecule of the DTPA by DOTA improved the sst3 binding affinity 14-fold. Whereas Y-DOTA-lanreotide had only low affinity for sst3 and sst4, it had the highest affinity for sst5 among the tested compounds (IC50 16 nM). Increased binding affinity for sst3 and sst5 was observed for DOTA-[Tyr3]-octreotide, DOTA-lanreotide and DOTA-vapreotide when they were labelled with yttrium. These marked changes in subtype affinity profiles are due not only to the different chemical structures but also to the different charges and hydrophilicity of these compounds. Interestingly, even the coordination geometry of the radiometal complex remote from the pharmacophoric amino acids has a significant influence on affinity profiles as shown with Y-DOTA versus Ga-DOTA in either [Tyr3]-octreotide or [Tyr3]-octreotate. Such changes in sst affinity profiles must be identified in newly designed radiotracers used for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in order to correctly interpret in vivo scintigraphic data. These observations may represent basic principles relevant to the development of other peptide radioligands.

                Author and article information

                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                13 February 2016
                : 6
                : 4
                : 501-510
                1. Zentralklinik Bad Berka GmbH, THERANOSTICS Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging (PET/CT), Robert-Koch-Allee 9, D-99437 Bad Berka, Germany.
                2. ABX-CRO Forschungsgesellschaft m.b.H., Blasewitzer Strasse 78 - 80, D-01307 Dresden, Germany.
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding author: Prof. Dr. Cees J.A. van Echteld, ABX-CRO Forschungsgesellschaft m.b.H. Blasewitzer Strasse 78 - 80, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. Phone: +49 / 351 21444-275 Fax: +49 / 351 21444-15 E-mail: vanechteld@ 123456abx-cro.com .

                * These two authors contributed equally to this work.

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

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