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      A Mouse Model of Human Hyperinsulinism Produced by the E1506K Mutation in the Sulphonylurea Receptor SUR1

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          Loss-of-function mutations in the K ATP channel genes KCNJ11 and ABCC8 cause neonatal hyperinsulinism in humans. Dominantly inherited mutations cause less severe disease, which may progress to glucose intolerance and diabetes in later life (e.g., SUR1-E1506K). We generated a mouse expressing SUR1-E1506K in place of SUR1. K ATP channel inhibition by MgATP was enhanced in both homozygous (homE1506K) and heterozygous (hetE1506K) mutant mice, due to impaired channel activation by MgADP. As a consequence, mutant β-cells showed less on-cell K ATP channel activity and fired action potentials in glucose-free solution. HomE1506K mice exhibited enhanced insulin secretion and lower fasting blood glucose within 8 weeks of birth, but reduced insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance at 6 months of age. These changes correlated with a lower insulin content; unlike wild-type or hetE1506K mice, insulin content did not increase with age in homE1506K mice. There was no difference in the number and size of islets or β-cells in the three types of mice, or evidence of β-cell proliferation. We conclude that the gradual development of glucose intolerance in patients with the SUR1-E1506K mutation might, as in the mouse model, result from impaired insulin secretion due a failure of insulin content to increase with age.

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          Use of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify cDNA products reverse transcribed from mRNA is on the way to becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study low abundance gene expression. Real-time PCR is easy to perform, provides the necessary accuracy and produces reliable as well as rapid quantification results. But accurate quantification of nucleic acids requires a reproducible methodology and an adequate mathematical model for data analysis. This study enters into the particular topics of the relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR of a target gene transcript in comparison to a reference gene transcript. Therefore, a new mathematical model is presented. The relative expression ratio is calculated only from the real-time PCR efficiencies and the crossing point deviation of an unknown sample versus a control. This model needs no calibration curve. Control levels were included in the model to standardise each reaction run with respect to RNA integrity, sample loading and inter-PCR variations. High accuracy and reproducibility (<2.5% variation) were reached in LightCycler PCR using the established mathematical model.
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            Endoplasmic reticulum stress, obesity and diabetes.

            The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, also commonly known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), is an adaptive response used to align ER functional capacity with demand. It is activated in various tissues under conditions related to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hypothalamic ER stress contributes to inflammation and leptin/insulin resistance. Hepatic ER stress contributes to the development of steatosis and insulin resistance, and components of the UPR regulate liver lipid metabolism. ER stress in enlarged fat tissues induces inflammation and modifies adipokine secretion, and saturated fats cause ER stress in muscle. Finally, prolonged ER stress impairs insulin synthesis and causes pancreatic β cell apoptosis. In this review, we discuss ways in which ER stress operates as a common molecular pathway in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Mutations in the sulfonylurea receptor gene in familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy.

              Familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by unregulated insulin secretion, is linked to chromosome 11p14-15.1. The newly cloned high-affinity sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) gene, a regulator of insulin secretion, was mapped to 11p15.1 by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two separate SUR gene splice site mutations, which segregated with disease phenotype, were identified in affected individuals from nine different families. Both mutations resulted in aberrant processing of the RNA sequence and disruption of the putative second nucleotide binding domain of the SUR protein. Abnormal insulin secretion in PHHI appears to be caused by mutations in the SUR gene.

                Author and article information

                American Diabetes Association
                November 2013
                18 October 2013
                : 62
                : 11
                : 3797-3806
                1Henry Wellcome Centre for Gene Function, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.
                2Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
                3Department of Pediatrics, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
                4Research Programs Unit, Molecular Neurology, Biomedicum Stem Cell Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
                5Children’s Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Frances M. Ashcroft, frances.ashcroft@ .

                K.S., M.T., M.I., and M.F.B. contributed equally to this study.

                © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details.

                Pages: 10
                Original Research

                Endocrinology & Diabetes


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