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      The association between blood eosinophil percent and bacterial infection in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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          Abstract

          Introduction: The use of antibiotics is based on the clinician’s experience and judgment, and antibiotics may often be overused in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Eosinophils have been studied as biomarkers of bacterial infection and prognostic factors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and AECOPD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether eosinophils could be used to determine bacterial infection in AECOPD events.

          Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients admitted to Korea University Guro Hospital for AECOPD between January 2011 and May 2017. Data pertaining to baseline characteristics, results of previous pulmonary function tests, treatment information during the admission period, and history of pulmonary treatment were collected before admission.

          Results: A total of 736 AECOPD events were eligible for inclusion and were divided into two groups based on the eosinophil count: those involving eosinophil counts of less than 2% (546 events) and those involving counts of 2% or more (190 events). In univariate analysis, the only bacterial pathogen identification events and bacterial-viral pathogen co-identification events were significantly more frequent in the group with eosinophil counts of less than 2% ( P=0.010 and P=0.001, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, the rates of only bacterial pathogen identification [odds ratios =1.744; 95% confidence interval, 1.107–2.749; P=0.017] and bacterial-viral pathogen co-identification [odds ratios=2.075; 95% confidence interval, 1.081–3.984; P=0.028] were higher in the group with eosinophil count less than 2%.

          Conclusion: In conclusion, eosinophil counts of less than 2% are potential indicators of a bacterial infection in AECOPD events. Eosinophils could thus serve as a reference for the use of antibiotics in AECOPD treatment.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The eosinophil.

          Eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasites. However, numerous lines of evidence have now changed this perspective by showing that eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses, as well as modulators of innate and adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize the biology of eosinophils, focusing on the growing properties of eosinophil-derived products, including the constituents of their granules as well as the mechanisms by which they release their pleiotropic mediators. We examine new views on the role of eosinophils in homeostatic function, including developmental biology and innate and adaptive immunity (as well as interaction with mast cells and T cells). The molecular steps involved in eosinophil development and trafficking are described, with special attention to the important role of the transcription factor GATA-1, the eosinophil-selective cytokine IL-5, and the eotaxin subfamily of chemokines. We also review the role of eosinophils in disease processes, including infections, asthma, and gastrointestinal disorders, and new data concerning genetically engineered eosinophil-deficient mice. Finally, strategies for targeted therapeutic intervention in eosinophil-mediated mucosal diseases are conceptualized.
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            Eosinophils: biological properties and role in health and disease.

            Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses, as well as modulators of innate and adaptive immunity. In this review, the biology of eosinophils is summarized, focusing on transcriptional regulation of eosinophil differentiation, characterization of the growing properties of eosinophil granule proteins, surface proteins and pleiotropic mediators, and molecular mechanisms of eosinophil degranulation. New views on the role of eosinophils in homeostatic function are examined, including developmental biology and innate and adaptive immunity (as well as their interaction with mast cells and T cells) and their proposed role in disease processes including infections, asthma, and gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, strategies for targeted therapeutic intervention in eosinophil-mediated mucosal diseases are conceptualized.
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              Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report: GOLD Executive Summary.

              This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 Report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: (i) the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; (ii) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacological treatments are proposed; (iii) the concept of de-escalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; (iv)non-pharmacological therapies are comprehensively presented and (v) the importance of co-morbid conditions in managing COPD is reviewed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                06 May 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 953-959
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Respiratory, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kyung Hoon MinDivision of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine , 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul08308, Republic of KoreaTel +82 2 2626 3308Fax +82 2 2626 1166 Email minkyunghoon@ 123456korea.ac.kr
                Article
                197361
                10.2147/COPD.S197361
                6511627
                31190782
                © 2019 Choi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 31, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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