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      CMIP is oncogenic in human gastric cancer cells

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          Abstract

          Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Recurrence, metastasis and resistance to drug treatment are the main barrier to survival of patients with advanced stage gastric cancer. Further study of the molecular mechanisms involved will improve the therapeutic options for gastric cancer. In a previous study, c-Maf was discovered as an oncogene transduced in the avian AS42 retrovirus, and was found to be overexpressed in multiple myeloma and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. c-Maf inducing protein (CMIP) is involved in the c-Maf signaling pathway, which was reported to serve an important role in human minimal change nephrotic syndrome and in human reading and language related behavior. However, the relationship between CMIP and human gastric cancer has not yet been reported. In the present study, CMIP protein levels in gastric cancer tissues and cells were measured using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis; the expression of CMIP protein was significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues compared with normal gastric tissues. Expression was positively associated with poorer clinical parameters, relapse-free survival and overall survival. Furthermore, using cell counting, Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation, wound healing and Transwell assays, together with flow cytometry, CMIP depletion by RNA interference was observed to reduce the capacity of gastric cancer cells to proliferate and migrate in vitro. Furthermore, the upstream and downstream genes of CMIP were analyzed by luciferase reporter assay and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which indicated that CMIP was a direct target of miR-101-3p. In addition, CMIP knockdown was observed to result in the downregulation of MDM2 and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression at the mRNA level. In conclusion, CMIP demonstrated an oncogenic role in human gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, microRNA-101-3p, MDM2 and MAPK were involved in the CMIP signaling pathway in gastric cancer. CMIP could be a novel target for further investigation in the clinical therapeutic management of gastric cancer.

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          Most cited references 38

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          CMIP and ATP2C2 Modulate Phonological Short-Term Memory in Language Impairment

          Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in language acquisition despite otherwise normal development and in the absence of any obvious explanatory factors. We performed a high-density screen of SLI1, a region of chromosome 16q that shows highly significant and consistent linkage to nonword repetition, a measure of phonological short-term memory that is commonly impaired in SLI. Using two independent language-impaired samples, one family-based (211 families) and another selected from a population cohort on the basis of extreme language measures (490 cases), we detected association to two genes in the SLI1 region: that encoding c-maf-inducing protein (CMIP, minP = 5.5 × 10−7 at rs6564903) and that encoding calcium-transporting ATPase, type2C, member2 (ATP2C2, minP = 2.0 × 10−5 at rs11860694). Regression modeling indicated that each of these loci exerts an independent effect upon nonword repetition ability. Despite the consistent findings in language-impaired samples, investigation in a large unselected cohort (n = 3612) did not detect association. We therefore propose that variants in CMIP and ATP2C2 act to modulate phonological short-term memory primarily in the context of language impairment. As such, this investigation supports the hypothesis that some causes of language impairment are distinct from factors that influence normal language variation. This work therefore implicates CMIP and ATP2C2 in the etiology of SLI and provides molecular evidence for the importance of phonological short-term memory in language acquisition.
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            Overexpression of c-maf is a frequent oncogenic event in multiple myeloma that promotes proliferation and pathological interactions with bone marrow stroma.

            The oncogene c-maf is translocated in approximately 5%-10% of multiple myelomas. Unexpectedly, we observed c-maf expression in myeloma cell lines lacking c-maf translocations and in 50% of multiple myeloma bone marrow samples. By gene expression profiling, we identified three c-maf target genes: cyclin D2, integrin beta7, and CCR1. c-maf transactivated the cyclin D2 promoter and enhanced myeloma proliferation, whereas dominant inhibition of c-maf blocked tumor formation in immunodeficient mice. c-maf-driven expression of integrin beta7 enhanced myeloma adhesion to bone marrow stroma and increased production of VEGF. We propose that c-maf transforms plasma cells by stimulating cell cycle progression and by altering bone marrow stromal interactions. The frequent overexpression of c-maf in myeloma makes it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.
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              Molecular characteristics of eight gastric cancer cell lines established in Japan.

               H Yokozaki (2000)
              Molecular characterization of eight gastric cancer cell lines established in Japan are summarized according to the genetic and epigenetic alterations and growth factor status. TMK-1 poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cell line harbors mutant p53 tumor suppressor gene and rearrangement of p15MTS2. MKN-1 adenosquamous carcinoma line with mutant p53 reveals silencing of E-cadherin by promoter CpG hypermethylation. MKN-7 well-differentiated adenocarcinoma cell line has amplification of c-erbB2 oncogene and cyclin E gene. MKN-28 well-differentiated adenocarcinoma cell line reveals mutations in p53 and APC tumor suppressor genes and silencing of CD44. The MKN-45 poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cell line with wild-type p53 is characterized by homozygous deletion of p16CDKN2/MTS1/INK4A and p15MTS2, amplification of c-met oncogene and promoter mutation of E-cadherin. MKN-74 derived from moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma has wild-type p53. KATO-III signet ring cell carcinoma line has genomic deletion of p53, amplification of K-sam and c-met oncogene and mutation of E-cadherin. HSC-39 signet ring cell carcinoma cell line harboring p53 missense mutation has homozygous deletion of p16CDKN2/MTS1/INK4A and p15MTS2, amplifications of c-myc, c-met, K-sam and CD44 gene and mutation in beta-catenin gene.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mol Med Rep
                Mol Med Rep
                Molecular Medicine Reports
                D.A. Spandidos
                1791-2997
                1791-3004
                November 2017
                20 September 2017
                20 September 2017
                : 16
                : 5
                : 7277-7286
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Emergency Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022, P.R. China
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, The Second People's Hospital of Hefei, Hefei, Anhui 230011, P.R. China
                [3 ]Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr Yeben Qian, Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, 218 JiXi Road, Hefei, Anhui 230022, P.R. China, E-mail: qianyeben@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                mmr-16-05-7277
                10.3892/mmr.2017.7541
                5865856
                28944848
                Copyright: © Zhang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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